Men's Health Journal <p><strong>Men's health journal (MHJ)</strong> is an international, peer-reviewed, totally free (Submission and Publication) and open access scientific journal. <span id="m_-4478816413475032476gmail-m_9057906418031166658yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1530780613503_2845">The MHJ&nbsp;<span id="m_-4478816413475032476gmail-m_9057906418031166658yui_3_16_0_ym19_1_1530780613503_3745">m</span></span>ulti-professional aspects&nbsp;including: Urology, Andrology, Cardiology, Endocrinology, Oncology, Gastroentrology, Nutrition, Genetics, Neurology, Pulmonology, Trauma, Gerontology, Psychiatry, Psychology, Sexual Reproductive medicine and public health,&nbsp;Occupational health, Mental health and wellbeing, Environmental health, HIV/AIDS/STIs, nursing, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Psychological &amp; Behavioral issues related to men, Health promotion, prevention and lifestyle, Marginalized male populations such as incarcerated men, homeless men, homosexual men, and minorities, Health System Research (HSR) and Health policies impacting men's health.</p> en-US <h3><span style="font-size: 10px;">Based on the obtained author agreement upon submission, "</span><span style="font-size: 10px;">Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences</span><span style="font-size: 10px;">" is the copyright owner of the published material. However, according to Bethesda Statement, all works published in this journal are open access and freely available to anyone on the journal web site without cost under creative common license BY-NC.&nbsp;Based on this license, under the condition of proper citation, “Emergency” grants to all users the following rights:</span></h3> <p>1. Free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual access to all published materials.</p> <p>2. To copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work on third party repositories and social media.</p> <p>3. To make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any non-commercial purpose.</p> (Prof. Jalil Hosseini) (Ms. Samira Shariatpanahi) Wed, 06 Jan 2021 04:44:29 +0000 OJS 60 Association Between Premature Ejaculation and Religious Orientation <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. Although its etiology is not fully understood, several organic and psychological disorders have been identified as risk factors. The main aim of this study is to find any association between religious orientation (RO) and PE. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We designed a cross-sectional study and 80 participants with PE as the main chief complaint were enrolled. After filling informed consent, all participants have filled two questionnaires including the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) for PE and the Allport &amp; Ross intrinsic-Extrinsic Religious Orientation Scale for RO assessment respectively. Spearman's rho analysis was used for assessing the association between PEDT scores and ROS scores by SPSS 22.0 version.</p> <p><strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>Out of 80 patients with mean age 35.56 ± 8.46 years, 70 patients (87.5%) had PEDT positive score. Of them, 45 (64%) had lifelong PE and 25 (36%) experienced an acquired PE. Correlation analysis was shown a reverse correlation between PEDT positive scores and Intrinsic RO (P = 0.05) with a correlation coefficient -0.311, PEDT positive and negative scores was not correlated with extrinsic RO (P= 1).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Patients with a lower intrinsic religious orientation score have a higher probability for PE and PEDT positive score.</p> Reza Sari Motlagh, Nayyer Sari Motlagh, Reihan Shenasi, Amirreza Kafi Kang, M.Reza Roshandel Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Sun, 10 Jan 2021 05:27:03 +0000 Bleeding in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Plus Coronary Artery Disease under Triple anti-Coagulant Therapy <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Regarding scarce knowledge about bleeding in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with simultaneous coronary artery disease (CAD) under triple anti-coagulant therapy, this study was carried out to recognize the risk of hemorrhage and preventive programming.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> In this performed prospective, 150 consecutive patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and concurrent coronary disease, candidate for triple therapy with Asprin 80 mg, Clopidogrel 75 mg and Rivaroxaban 15 mg (in Shohada, Loghman, Modarres, and Labafinezhad centers, in Tehran, Iran during Jan 2019 to Jan 2020 were enrolled and the incidence rate of bleeding and compliance were evaluated for one month.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results in this study demonstrated that 87.3% had compliance and completely use three drugs. Bleeding occurred in 0.6 % (4 patients), no major bleeding , only one minor bleeding as GIB, three minimal cases (totally 4 bleeding cases), 3 cases with epistaxis, 7 patients with ecchymosis, 6 subjects with hematuria, no one required discontinuation of drug. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, female sex, older age, higher HASBLED Score, and higher CHADS-VASC Score were related to lack of compliance (P &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Incidence rate of bleeding in atrial fibrillation plus coronary concurrent patients, candidate for triple therapy with ASA, Clopidogrel and Rivaroxaban is low. Also the bleeding is minor and the compliance is high showing that majority of cases use routinely these triple therapy regimen.</p> Mehdi Pishgahi, Marjan Rashidi, Reza Arefizade Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 13 Jan 2021 13:43:49 +0000 Comparing the Effect of Vitamin E and N-Acetylcysteine on Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients under Coronary Angiography <p><strong>Introduction:&nbsp; </strong>Considering the incidence of contrast&nbsp; induced&nbsp; nephropathy&nbsp; (CIN) as well as&nbsp; its&nbsp; complications&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; costs,&nbsp; prevention&nbsp; and&nbsp; reducing&nbsp; the&nbsp; risk&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; is&nbsp; an&nbsp; essential&nbsp; issue.&nbsp; The&nbsp; present&nbsp; study&nbsp; aimed&nbsp; to&nbsp; evaluate&nbsp; the&nbsp; efficacy&nbsp; of&nbsp; vitamin&nbsp; E&nbsp; and&nbsp; N-acetylcysteine&nbsp; (NAC)&nbsp; on the prevention&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; in&nbsp; diabetic&nbsp; patients&nbsp; undergoing&nbsp; coronary&nbsp; angiography.</p> <p><strong>Materials and</strong> <strong>Methods:&nbsp; </strong>360&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; diabetes&nbsp; who&nbsp; required&nbsp; angiography,&nbsp; including&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; stable&nbsp; angina&nbsp; susceptible&nbsp; to&nbsp; acute&nbsp; myocardial&nbsp; infarction&nbsp; and&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; acute&nbsp; coronary&nbsp; syndrome&nbsp; were&nbsp; included&nbsp; and&nbsp; randomized&nbsp; into&nbsp; three&nbsp; groups .&nbsp; Group&nbsp; 1&nbsp; received&nbsp; serum&nbsp; therapy&nbsp; (Normal Saline)&nbsp; plus&nbsp; NAC&nbsp; and&nbsp; placebo&nbsp; of&nbsp; vitamin&nbsp; E,&nbsp; group&nbsp; 2&nbsp; received&nbsp; serum&nbsp; therapy&nbsp; plus&nbsp; vitamin&nbsp; E&nbsp; and&nbsp; placebo&nbsp; of&nbsp; NAC,&nbsp; and&nbsp; group&nbsp; 3&nbsp; only&nbsp; received&nbsp; serum&nbsp; therapy&nbsp; with&nbsp; two&nbsp; placebos&nbsp; of&nbsp; NAC&nbsp; and&nbsp; vitamin&nbsp; E.&nbsp; The groups were compared considering CIN after angiography. <strong>Results:&nbsp; </strong>A&nbsp; total&nbsp; of&nbsp; 93&nbsp; patients&nbsp; were&nbsp; studied&nbsp; in&nbsp; group&nbsp; 1,&nbsp; 94&nbsp; in&nbsp; group&nbsp; 2,&nbsp; and&nbsp; 113&nbsp; in&nbsp; group&nbsp; 3.&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; occurred&nbsp; in&nbsp; 4&nbsp; patients&nbsp; (4.3%),&nbsp; 4&nbsp; patients&nbsp; (4.3%),&nbsp; and&nbsp; 8&nbsp; patients&nbsp; (7.1%)&nbsp; in&nbsp; groups&nbsp; 1,&nbsp; 2,&nbsp; and&nbsp; 3,&nbsp; respectively&nbsp; (P=0.58).&nbsp; There was&nbsp; a&nbsp; significant&nbsp; difference&nbsp; in&nbsp; mean&nbsp; difference&nbsp; of&nbsp; creatinine&nbsp; levels&nbsp; before&nbsp; and&nbsp; after&nbsp; study&nbsp; in&nbsp; groups&nbsp; 1&nbsp; and&nbsp; 2&nbsp; (both&nbsp; P&lt;0.001).&nbsp; In&nbsp; the&nbsp; subgroup&nbsp; of&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; chronic&nbsp; kidney&nbsp; disease,&nbsp; NAC&nbsp; significantly&nbsp; reduced&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; (P=0.03).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>The results&nbsp; suggested&nbsp; efficacy&nbsp; of&nbsp; both&nbsp; interventions,&nbsp; considering&nbsp; reduction&nbsp; of&nbsp; mean&nbsp; Serum creatinine ( Scr) after&nbsp; the&nbsp; study,&nbsp; while&nbsp; lack&nbsp; of&nbsp; significant&nbsp; difference&nbsp; in&nbsp; the&nbsp; incidence&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; could&nbsp; be&nbsp; because&nbsp; of&nbsp; the&nbsp; low&nbsp; number&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; in&nbsp; our&nbsp; study.&nbsp; The second&nbsp; important&nbsp; finding&nbsp; of&nbsp; this&nbsp; study,&nbsp; probably the&nbsp; reduced&nbsp; risk&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN&nbsp; in&nbsp; diabetic&nbsp; patients&nbsp; with&nbsp; chronic&nbsp; kidney&nbsp; disease&nbsp; receiving&nbsp; NAC,&nbsp; recommends&nbsp; the&nbsp; use&nbsp; of&nbsp; NAC&nbsp; for&nbsp; prevention&nbsp; of&nbsp; CIN,&nbsp; especially&nbsp; in&nbsp; this&nbsp; subgroup&nbsp; of&nbsp; patients&nbsp; undergoing&nbsp; angiography.</p> Mehdi Pishgahi, Mahtab Niroomand, Omolbanin Taziki, Sepideh Shahi, Kimia Karimi Toudeshki, Mina Mirzaei Pirloo Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 14 Jan 2021 09:09:55 +0000 Demographic Differences in Circumcision Satisfaction among U.S. Males <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Male circumcision involves the partial or total removal of the prepuce (foreskin) from the penis, and it is the most common surgical procedure performed on infants in the USA. According to social convention theory, in demographic populations where male circumcision is more socially accepted, we would predict that circumcised men would be more likely to report satisfaction with their circumcision status. This exploratory study investigated the ways in which particular demographic sub-groups have differing attitudes and levels of satisfaction based on their circumcision status.<strong> Materials and Methods: </strong>The participant data used in these analyses are from a study conducted to explore the effects of false beliefs concerning circumcision and intact penises on circumcision satisfaction. After participant exclusion based on additional criteria, 902 male participants from the United States, ranging in age from 18-75 (<em>M</em> = 34.0, <em>SD</em> = 10.0), remained. A series of demographic information by circumcision status between participants Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) were conducted on circumcision status satisfaction. &nbsp;<strong>Results: </strong>Results indicated that circumcision status satisfaction varied as a function of race/ethnicity, religion, relationship status, and sexual orientation. Statistically significant differences in circumcision status satisfaction were found for all of the demographic variables. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Using social convention theory, these data suggest that circumcision satisfaction is related to endorsement of the dominant culture and its norms surrounding the masculine body. Further investigation is warranted regarding causal implications of how one’s demographic characteristics may affect one’s satisfaction with their circumcision status.</p> Lauren Sardi, William Jellison Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 27 Jan 2021 18:02:33 +0000 Relationship Between Heavy Metal levels in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality in Iranian Men <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> During the last decades, frequent reports on the poor semen quality in humans have raised many researchers' concerns to study the possible impact of lifestyle or environmental factors on semen quality. The debate is continuously growing on the adverse reproductive effects of exposure to heavy and trace metals found in the environment, even at their relatively low levels. <strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was carried out from July 2018 to February 2019.&nbsp; A total of 40 men were divided into two groups (idiopathic oligo– and/or asthenozoospermia and normozoospermic men) to determine the correlation between arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and manganese (Mn) levels in the seminal plasma with sperm quality parameters including concentration, total motility, progressive motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), sperm plasma membrane integrity (SPMI), acrosome integrity (AI) and DNA fragmentation in Iranian men with idiopathic oligo– and/or asthenozoospermia and normozoospermic individuals. &nbsp;<strong>Results:</strong> A significant positive or suggestive correlation was found between as concentrations in the seminal plasma and sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, viability, MMP, SPMI, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, seminal plasma Cd concentrations were also correlated negatively with sperm viability. We also found a positive correlation between the seminal plasma Mn levels and sperm concentration, motility, progressive motility, morphology, viability, acrosome integrity, and DNA fragmentation. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> We showed that the levels of As, Cd, and Mn levels in the seminal plasma are associated with the sperm functional parameters. Considering the unpleasant effects of the studied metals on semen quality, it is suggested that long-term contact with these metals be avoided, especially by people at their reproductive age.</p> Heidar Heidari Khoei, Maryam Karimi Dehkordi, Tohid Rezaei Tobbraghale, Mohammad Javad Taher mofrad, Elham Azizi, Yadolah Fakhri, Zahra Shams Mofarahe Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Sun, 24 Jan 2021 10:05:45 +0000 Satisfaction of Patients after Urethral Reconstruction <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Urethroplasty is one of the most common and important reconstructive procedures in the field of urology. In order to improve patient’s condition, medical man needs to be acquainted with this technique. &nbsp;We aimed to evaluate quality of life and satisfaction of patients with Urethroplasty in the reconstructive urology department of Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, during 1995-2016.<strong> Materials and Methods:</strong> This study was a retrospective cohort. Sampling was done by census method. The patients' demographic information, cause and duration of urethral stricture, type and frequency of procedures, daily fluid intake, urinary obstruction symptoms, the quality of marital relations, and the quality of life of patients before and after the surgery, were evaluated.<strong> &nbsp;Results:</strong> The mean age of the patients was 36.6 years. 46.4% of the patients had moderate and more than moderate marital satisfaction after surgery, while this preoperative satisfaction was 48.2% (P&gt;0.05). Patients' quality of work life and job satisfaction was significantly higher than before surgery (P=0.05). In 90.3% of the patients, urination status had no or little negative impact on their daily life after surgery. Also, 86.9% of the patients did not have weak urinary flow during follow-up. 88% of the patients were satisfied with the outcome of their surgery. Patients' satisfaction with their physical health after surgery was 82.1%.<strong> Conclusion:</strong> In general, it is inferred that Urethroplasty is associated with a high success rate and patient satisfaction, and also improves their quality of life.</p> Seyed Ali Torabi Niaki, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Rayka Sharifian, Mohammad Ali Hosseini, Jalil Hosseini Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Sat, 30 Jan 2021 05:37:21 +0000 Machine Learning Approaches to predict Intra-Uterine Insemination Success Rate- Application of Artificial Intelligence in Infertility <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) has been widely utilized for infertility management. Despite its low success rate, Intra-Uterine Insemination (IUI) is one of the first alternatives and most important approaches regarding many cases of infertility treatment. Given the numerous influencing factors and limitations associated with time and resources, the development of a reliable model to predict the success rate of ART methods can significantly contribute to decision-making processes. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> We reviewed the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data regarding 157 IUI treatment cycles among 124 women using their partner’s sperm from May2017 to June2019. Primary outcome measures were clinical pregnancy and live birth. Some prediction models were constructed and compared to the logistic regression analysis. <strong>Results</strong>: Woman’s mean age was 30.1 ± 5.2 years and the infertility had a female cause in 24.3% of the cases, male cause in 32.6% of cases, and combined causes in 32.6% of the cases. Concerning the first IUI cycle, the clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was 16.9% (N= 21). Data were prepared according to cross-industry standard&nbsp;<em>process</em>&nbsp;for data mining (CRISP-DM) methodology, and the following models were fitted to the data: J48 Decision Tree, Perceptron Multilayer (MLP) Neural Network, Support Vector Machine (SVM) with radial basis function (RBF) kernel, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) with one neighborhood, and Bayesian Network. J48 Decision Tree, with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 98%, had the most optimal performance, and the KNN model was the weakest one. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: To predict the results of IUI as a simple and less invasive therapy for infertile couples, some models were applied based on artificial intelligence and J48 Decision Tree was recommended.</p> Farzad Allameh, Morteza Fallah-Karkan, Shahrzad Zadeh Modarres, Amir Reza Abedi, Mohammad Javad Eslami, Mohammad Reza Hajian, Mehdi Dadpour, Leyla Zareian Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Mon, 01 Mar 2021 03:46:10 +0000 Prevalence of Different Subtypes of Renal Cell Carcinoma among Patients who have Undergone Nephrectomy; Statistics of a Referral Medical Center in Iran <p>Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the third most common genitourinary cancer in the world, and has the highest mortality rates among these types of cancers. In the present cross-sectional assessment, the prevalence of RCC subtypes in a sample of Iranian patients diagnosed with RCC which have undergone nephrectomy surgery between years 2014 to 2019 in a referral medical center has been investigated. We have studied 68 patients, including 47 male and 21 female individuals with an average age of 55. The patients have been studied for demographic and pathologic information such as age, sex, tumor size, tumor subtype, TNM staging, Fuhrman nuclear grading, and other pathological information. The statistical analysis was done via SPSS software version 21. Quantitative data were examined by T test and qualitative data were assessed by Chi square test. As we observed in the results, the most common RCC subtype among these patients was clear cell 53%, followed by papillary 22% and chromophobe 19%, emphasizing the higher rates of chromophobe RCC compared to the statistics worldwide.</p> Zahra Mohajer, Afshin Moradi, Farzad Allameh Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Mon, 01 Mar 2021 03:55:00 +0000 Evaluation of Association between duration of Hospitalization in-Patient with Deep Venous Thrombosis and the type of Treatment Considering the Effect of Comorbid Diseases <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common disease with serious risks such as pulmonary embolism and there are different anticoagulant therapies for treatment of this condition. In this study, we investigated the association between the duration of hospitalization with different treatment methods and comorbidities. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the hospital records of 213 patients with a diagnosis of acute DVT in Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital in 2019 and 2020 were reviewed. Patients were divided into five main groups and five subgroups based on the type of treatment. Then, the association between the duration of hospitalization and different treatment methods was studied. <strong>Results:</strong> Treatment with novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with an average length of 2.5 days of hospitalization significantly reduces the duration of hospitalization. Combination therapy with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and warfarin or LMWH alone, with an average of 8.38 and 8.20 days, is preferable to treatment with unfractionated heparin (UFH) and warfarin, with an average of 9.2 days. Warfarin treatment with an average duration of hospitalization of 8.43 days is in the third place. The use of other methods has increased the duration of hospitalization. History of comorbidities including history of hospitalization, hypertension, smoking, cancer and trauma are the five comorbidities that have the greatest effect on the length of hospitalization of patients, respectively. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> According to the present study, treatment with NOACs reduces the duration of hospitalization of patients more than the other treatment methods. The second best choice is LMWH injection therapy and continuation with warfarin or starting and continuing treatment with LMWH preferable to injecting treatment with UFH and continuing with warfarin. The type of underlying disease and comorbidities had a significant effect on the duration of hospitalization.</p> Mehdi Pishgahi, Rama Bozorgmehr, Kimia Karimi Toudeshki, Ali Forouzannia Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 18 Mar 2021 11:37:08 +0000 Evaluation of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Risk in Patients with post Trauma Splenectomy <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Recent studies suggest that the spleen has an important role as a source of multipotent stem cells and precursors of beta cells of pancreas islets. In addition, increased risk of developing hyperglycemia was reported in patients who underwent splenectomy due to trauma in long-term follow up. Therefore, there might be an association between splenectomy and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, we evaluated the risk of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity and hypertension in trauma patients with splenectomy. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> In this study, 221 patients who underwent splenectomy surgery due to trauma in the surgical ward of Imam Hossein Hospital 5 to 10 years ago were selected. Those with a history of diabetes, cancer, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, pancreatitis, renal failure, and cirrhosis were excluded from the study. Then fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), triglyceride, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL), body mass index and blood pressure have been evaluated in 90 patients who had had a history of splenectomy due to trauma from 2007, July 23 to 2012, July 22. <strong>Results:</strong> The results indicate that none of these patients has diabetes, 14.4 percent are in pre-diabetic stage, 56.6 percent has dyslipidemia, 57.7 percent has obesity and 20 percent has hypertension. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The results of this study suggest that splenectomy does not increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. Prevalence of diabetes risk factors was approximately the same with those of Tehran population.</p> Behzad Nemati Honar, Mehdi Pishgahi, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Seyed Ali Forouzannia, Seyed Alireza Ebadi, Mohammad Karim Shahrzad Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 18 Mar 2021 11:46:25 +0000 The Effect of Thyroid Hormone Replacement on the Metabolic Control and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Subclinical Hypothyroidism <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Studying the treatment effect of subclinical hypothyroidism in decreasing metabolic syndrome risk factors and cardiovascular diseases is necessary and can be helpful to control future disorders. In spite of various studies, the relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and cardiovascular diseases remain controversial. Studies which consider the effects of subclinical hypothyroidism treatment on metabolic control and insulin resistance have not been done in the Islamic Republic of Iran yet. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> In this interventional study, 153 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) &gt;5, normal T3 and T4 at least 2 times) were selected from Labbafinejad endocrine clinic. Laboratory tests were performed at 8 a.m. after 12-14 hours fasting. Patients were then treated with levothyroxine (25-50 µg daily). To adjust the dose, thyroid function tests (TFT) were checked every 2 months for 6 months. Collected data was used for analysis by spss18 software. <strong>Results:</strong> After 6 months treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism mean values improved in factors such as insulin resistance profile (fasting blood sugar (FBS), 2 hours post prandial (2hPP), fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR index), lipid profile (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL), decreased c-reactive protein (CRP) and weight (all had P value&lt;0.05). Treatment did not have significant effect on triglycerides (TG), waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), uric acid ad systolic/diastolic blood pressure (p values&gt;0.05). But the number of cases with high systolic/diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after 6 months treatment (P values=0.007 and 0.01). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Subclinical hypothyroidism treatment is suggested according to mentioned effects, especially in cases with insulin resistance, lipid profile disturbance, obesity, and high blood pressure.</p> Kobra Roohigilani, Seyed Alireza Ebadi, Mohsen Hajighasemi, Mohammad Karim Shahrzad, Mehdi Pishgahi Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 18 Mar 2021 11:55:55 +0000 The Evaluation of the Effect of Hypothyroidism Treatment on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> There is still controversy over the existence of a relation between hypothyroidism and fatty liver disease. The scale by which hypothyroidism can affect fatty liver disease progression is also to be determined. Therefore, our study aims to contribute in the determination of this relation. <strong>Materials and methods:</strong> This observational analytical-before and after study with 53 patients was conducted. The subjects were categorized as having either primary or subclinical hypothyroidism. The serum levels of thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH), free T3 (FT3), free T4 (FT4), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured and liver ultrasound was done to screen nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). <strong>Results:</strong> The study consisted of 41 women and 12 men with the mean age of 48.3 years. The mean TSH levels decreased after hypothyroidism treatment in patients. The mean levels of FT4 did not have a significant increase after treatment, although in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism this increase was significant. T3 levels increased significantly after treatment. Statistical studies showed that there was a significant change in the degree of fatty liver before and after hypothyroidism treatment. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> There was an explicit relation between hypothyroidism and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as Hypothyroidism treatment can prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver disease progression.</p> Seyed Alireza Ebadi, Shayesteh Khalili, Romina Rafiei, Mehdi Pishgahi, Mohammad karim Shahrzad Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 18 Mar 2021 12:04:01 +0000 A Cross-Sectional Study of prevalence of Prostate lesions and inter-Observer Variability in Histopathological Reporting <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>To report the prevalence of various prostate lesions in the general population through cadaver prostates and to determine the interobserver variability for reporting high-grade lesions of the prostate. <strong>Materials and Methods</strong><strong>: </strong>The cross-sectional study was carried out on 110 autopsy specimens of healthy prostate with deceased age over 40 years. The specimens were grossed, sectioned, stained and reported independently by the primary investigator resident and the senior professor. The lesions were categorized into prostatitis, benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH), prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) further graded as low grade (LGPIN) and high grade (HGPIN) and prostate cancer (PCa). Inter-rater kappa agreement was used to find the strength of agreement between the pathologists.<strong> Results: </strong>Among 110 prostate specimens, only 8(7.27%) cases had normal prostate with 72 (65.4%) having BPH and 12(10.9%) cases having prostatitis. There were 17 cases of PIN with 11 cases of HGPIN and 6 cases of LGPIN. Malignancy was seen in only a single case (95% Confidence Interval: 0% - 2.71%). The primary resident missed 4 cases of HGPIN and 2 cases of LGPIN. Interobserver agreement between the resident and senior pathologist was fair (Kappa 0.282, p value=0.335)<strong>. Conclusion: </strong>In conclusion, prostate lesions remain latent and show high prevalence in general population without causing any symptoms. The study depicts a high interobserver variability of reporting the high-grade lesions of prostate since they cause a diagnostic dilemma with PCa. The consultation with uropathologists and use of molecular markers must be included in the diagnostic panel while reaching a final diagnosis. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Rachna Gulati, Neena Katoch, Sharmila Dudani, Subhendu Pandit, Manish S Ahuja Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 25 Mar 2021 11:42:01 +0000 The correlation between Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease; An Echocardiographic Evaluation <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), as a visceral adipose tissue, is associated with various cardio-metabolic risk factors, such as fasting plasma glucose, systemic blood pressure and serum low-density lipoprotein. Using EAT thickness as a cost-efficient assessment tool for stratifying the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. <strong>Methods: </strong>We enrolled 250 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography during 2016 and gathered their demographic. Echocardiographic examinations were performed in the left lateral decubitus position and EAT thickness was measured in standard parasternal long-axis (PLAX) and apical four chamber views. <strong>Results:</strong> 250 patients including 156 men (mean age: 57.66) and 94 women (mean age: 61.19) were enrolled. Two vessel disease (2VD) and three vessel disease (3VD) were significantly associated with hyperlipidemia (P: 0.04), CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease) (P: 0.001), diabetes mellitus (P: 0.001) and smoking habits (P: 0.001). Also, EAT thickness in PLAX view (P&lt;0.001), and not four chamber view (P: 0.136), was significantly associated and correlated with increased involvement of coronary arteries in catheterization. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Although EAT thickness in PLAX view was significantly correlated with 2VD and 3VD, this correlation was not strong and the accuracy of this approach needs further evaluation.</p> Fariba Bayat, Aliya Bahramnejad Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:15:53 +0000 Analyzing the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Different Educational Aspects of Surgical Specialties’ Residency Program: A Preliminary Report <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The lifestyle and learning of trainees from different surgical specialties have been severely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the growing body of research, the extent to which their surgical or educational performance is affected is not yet well-understood. We investigated the Iranian multi-specialty surgical residents nationwide to clarify the extent this new pandemic’s has affected their surgical and educational activities. <strong>Material and Methods:</strong> Our specialized board designed a questionnaire which was sent to residents from the 18th of May to 12th of Jun 2020. The questionnaire comprised demographic data, questions on the clinical, surgical, and educational activities during and before the pandemic. <strong>Results:</strong> Out of 700 eligible residents, 543 (77%) submitted their answers to all questions. 417 (76.8%) of the respondents declared they had spent their residency program at a hospital that was the main referral center for patients with COVID-19 infection. The weekly number of the outpatient and emergent visits decreased by one third (P&lt;0.001) and one-half (P&lt;0.001), respectively, following the pandemic. Also, the amount of surgeries has dramatically decreased (P&lt;0.001). The median weekly hours devoted to face-to-face activities decreased, while the study time increased and the share of virtual education has a five-fold increase (P&lt;0.001). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> This pandemic had a significant impact on many aspects of training in surgical specialties’ residency program in Iran. Increasing the time available to study is an opportunity, and online education, despite its challenges, has been effective.</p> Amir Reza Abedi, Mohammadreza Shahmohammadi, Niki Tadayon, Leila Nazari, Melika Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush, Mehrdad Sadighi, Mohammadreza Chehrassan, Reza Jalili khoshnoud, Mohammad Ali Ghanbari, Farzad Allameh Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Sun, 23 May 2021 02:54:02 +0000 Determining the opacity of urinary stone using only the Computed Tomography imaging, Is KUB still needed? <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Defining the opacity of urinary stones by Kidney -Ureter-Bladder (KUB) imaging in the selection of treatment modality is considered necessary by many urologists. This imposes more radiation to patients and additional health costs. The objective of this study is evaluation of the capability of Computed Tomography (CT) imaging in predicting the opacity of urinary calculi. <strong>Methods: </strong>In this prospective study, the appearance of stones and the body characteristics of all our patients were recorded and analyzed. The setup for reviewing the imaging was as follows: first: CT-scout, then KUB and finally CT scan. The sensitivity and specificity of the CT-scout and Hounsfield unit in detecting stone opacity was calculated. The effect of stone size and body parameters in CT on predicting non-opaque stones were then analyzed. CT scout-negative KUB-positive urolithiasis were analyzed separately. <strong>Results: </strong>Among 197 participants, all opaque calculi in CT scout were also visible on KUB. Among scout-negative urinary stones, twenty-eight (14.21%) were KUB opaque. For predicting the opacity by CT scan parameters, the most desirable HU cut-off was 504 HU and 510 HU in KUB and CT scout, with 80.8% and 86.5% sensitivity, respectively. The overall sensitivity of CT-scout was 86.27% and specificity was 64.29%. Stone diameter ≥5mm and subcutaneous fat width of ≤25.40 mm augmented the sensitivity in our study groups. <strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>All opaque calculi on scout imaging are also opaque on KUB and this could obviate the necessity of KUB imaging in this group of patients.&nbsp; HU above 504 in scout-negative stones has the best sensitivity and specificity in foretelling the opacity of stones and size ≥5mm and subcutaneous fat width of ≤25.40 mm augment their predictability potential.</p> Navid Masoumi, Taraneh Faghihi Langroudi, Fahimeh Bagheri, Amirhesam Alirezaei, Majid Ali Asgari, Mehdi Dehghani Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Mon, 31 May 2021 07:51:25 +0000 Testosterone Level and Coronary Artery Disease in Iranian Men; a Systematic Review <p>Coronary artery disease (CAD) is among the most common cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), caused by the formation of plaques of lipids, calcium, and inflammatory cells. In Iran, CAD is responsible for about 50% of all deaths per year. There is also a probability of the role of androgens deficiency in CAD in men. We aimed to systematically review all the related original studies to achieve an overall insight into the associations of testosterone and CAD in Iranian men.&nbsp;</p> <p>MedLine, Web of Science, Scopus, and Google scholar databases were searched from inception to January 2021. All types of studies on Iranian men older than 40 years of age, reporting results of comparing testosterone in normal individuals and those with CAD were included. The main findings of the articles were compared to achieve an overall statement.</p> <p>Ultimately, six studies were included. Most (66.7%) had directly stated that lower levels of testosterone are associated with CAD or the level of testosterone is lower in patients with proven CAD. Among them, in 3 (50%) studies, the mean age of the participants had no significant difference between patients with CAD and the normal group.</p> <p>It is clear that low testosterone level is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events but it is not definitely determined whether it is independent of age in Iranian men.&nbsp; Further well-designed studies are needed to clearly exclude all confounding variables including age and show the net effect of testosterone on CAD.</p> Ehsan Shojaeefar, Kamyar Aghaei, Mahta Abbasi Fashami, Shahrzad Nematollahi, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Amir Reza Abedi Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Mon, 24 May 2021 14:05:18 +0000 Reviewing of published studies on Health risk management in Emergency and Disaster <p>Background: The need for comprehensive and more serious management of disasters and, consequently, the need for knowledge and how to use it in order to reduce the risk of disasters has increased. The importance of this issue is such that in 2016, the World Health Organization launched a research network related to health risk management in disasters. Accordingly, this study was conducted to review articles published in the field of health in emergency and disaster. Methods: In this study, the narrative review method has been used. The accessible articles published in the field of health Risk Management (health EDRM) from 2000 to 2019 were reviewed. Databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Medline, Magiran and SID were used. 24 studies had the inclusion criteria that were selected and analyzed. Data analysis was a qualitative content analysis in the form of components of health risk management in emergency and disasters. Results: Among the 24 studies reviewed, 21 articles were in English and 3 articles were in Persian. In addition, most of these studies were published in 2019. The articles were analyzed and reported in the form of components and functions of health risk management in emergency and disasters, published in 2019 by the World Health Organization. Conclusion: Studies show that the focus of most studies is on policies, strategies and legislation, planning and coordination, and less attention is paid to the components of risk communication and health services. Also, there are many research gaps and it is suggested that more research be done with more precise guidance.</p> Hamidreza Khankeh, Zahra Mehraeen Nazdik Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 26 May 2021 06:50:16 +0000 Prioritization of Iranian Male Mental Disorders Based on latest Prevalence, Burden, Male/Female Ratio and Expert Pane; a Systematic Review <p>Introduction: Mental disorders are the most prevalent health problems in the world. 23.6\% of Iranians have at least one psychological disorder. Men usually neglect their mental health issues, and their top priority mental health disorders should be determined for health planning. Methods: International databases including MedLine, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and SID national database were searched from 2015 to October 2020. The latest reported prevalence and percent of total DALY (Disability-adjusted life year), their difference between sexes as well as the expert panel’s opinion about mental disorders were gathered in a matrix based on the Three-Dimensional Combined Approach Matrix (3D-CAM). Each item got a rank and prioritization was made base on mean rank. Results: Eight studies were included. The most prevalent mental disorders among the Iranian male population were Major Anxiety Disorders (MADs, 12\%) and the highest burden belonged to Major depressive disorder (MDD) comprising 2.88\% of the total DALY. Considering all parameters, the highest priority was the Drug Use Disorders (DUD) followed by Alcohol Use disorders (AUDs), Conduct disorder, MADs, Bipolar disorder, MDD, and Schizophrenia, respectively. Conclusion: Men are extremely affected by drug and alcohol use disorders in Iran and also there is a lack of practical screening and effective interventional programs for these disorders in the primary health care system. More intensive harm reduction programs are needed for decreasing devastating consequences of any substance use disorders as well as improving mental health literacy and raising awareness toward risk perception for preventive and controlling purposes.</p> Ahmad Hajebi, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Ehsan Shojaeefar, Mohammad Ali Hosseini Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 26 May 2021 08:59:38 +0000 The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Iranian Men; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Overweight and obesity is one of the most common diseases worldwide that is less considered in men. In this regard scattered studies have been conducted in Iran, and our aim was to systematically study the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Iranian men. <strong>Methods:</strong> Major international databases including: Scopus and PubMed, and Web of Science and national databases including Magiran and SID were searched for articles in Persian and English which were published from August 10, 2010 to August 10, 2020. Qualitative evaluation of the studies was performed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale checklist (NOS). Random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence by STATA software version 14.2 with significance level of 0.05. <strong>Results:</strong> Overall, 52 studies with a total sample size of 120,440 men with age range of 20-77 years were included in this systematic review. Most studies were conducted in 2017 and almost all of them were in Tehran province. The pooled prevalence of overweight was 46% (95% CI: 46, 46) in men. The lowest prevalence of overweight was 11.1% in Fars and the highest was 57% in Tabriz. The pooled prevalence of obesity in men was 18% (95% CI: 18, 19) with the highest prevalence in Birjand (46.5%) and the lowest in Tehran (0.8%). <strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our results showed a variety of tools for measuring overweight and obesity in Iran. Based on the BMI index, we found that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was substantial among Iranian men. There seems to be an urgent need for health policy makers to develop and implement proper preventive strategies in order to control this public health problem and its serious health consequences among men, especially in the workplace.</p> Jalil Hosseini, Shahrzad Nematollahi; Samira Shariatpanahi; Zahra Sadegh-Zadeh Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 06 Jan 2021 04:18:31 +0000 The Pooled Cut-off Point of Waist Circumference as Core Component of Metabolic Syndrome Diagnosis among the Iranian Population; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: According to a nationwide study, one-third of the Iranian population suffer from metabolic syndrome (MetS). The most controversial criteria for the diagnosis of MetS is central obesity which would be defined by waist circumference (WC) and needed to be gender and ethnic-specific. There are several national studies that reported different cut-offs for WC so the present study aimed to do a systematic review and meta-analysis to achieve an overall statistical estimate of WC for the Iranian population. <strong>Method</strong>: A comprehensive search was conducted in international databases from inception to June 2020. The search keywords were waist circumference AND metabolic syndrome AND cut AND Iran. We used the QUADAS-2 tool for quality assessment and the HSROC model for estimating pooled specificity, sensitivity, and the cut-off point from included studies in R software. <strong>Results</strong>: A total of 3571 studies were evaluated and 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Finally, 8 studies were included. All the studies were cross-sectional. Studies with missing MetS prevalence were excluded. Most of the studies had an unclear risk of bias in patient selection. There was a wide variation among reported cut-offs for WC from national and original studies. The Pooled cut-off points of WC for the diagnosis of MetS was 90.55 cm (95%CI: 90.51-90.60) in men and 89.24 cm (95%CI: 89.13-89.36) in women. The pooled sensitivity and specificity in men were 0.67 and 0.68, respectively and the pooled sensitivity and specificity in women were 0.61 and 0.57, respectively. <strong>Conclusion:&nbsp; </strong>Our results were highly consistent with the only national study and the only consensus about WC cut-off. Further nationwide studies are suggested to be involved in a Mata-analysis for calculating more precise WC cut-off.</p> Ehsan Shojaeefar, Narges Malih, Jalil Hossieni, Sajjad Raeisi, Alireza Esteghamati Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Sat, 20 Feb 2021 13:05:49 +0000 Sexual Dysfunction in Iranian Men with Diabetes; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: The typical sexual function involves the integrity and harmonious interaction of psychological, endocrine, vascular, and nervous systems. We aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD), more specifically erectile dysfunction in Iranian men with diabetes. <strong>Method</strong>: Using keywords including: “sexual function,” “erectile dysfunction,” “diabetes,” and “Iran”, an electronic search was done on national and international databases. All cross-sectional or baseline data in cohort studies were included. The prevalence of SD and its related risk factors were extracted and summarized. The random effect model was used for estimating the pooled prevalence. &nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Results</strong>: Ultimately, 16 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, amongst which 6 were included for quantitative synthesis. The pooled prevalence of SD across included studies was 50.7%. with a total sample size of 1513. Two main correlated factors with SD were advanced age and depression. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Our analysis showed that more than half of the Iranian men with diabetes suffer from SD. Apart from advanced age, the most important attributes for comorbidity of diabetes and SD in these patients were found to be chronic uncontrolled high blood sugar and depression.&nbsp; More advanced epidemiological studies are needed to assess the temporality of the relationship between SD and its related comorbidities and to develop proper preventive programs.</p> Amir Reza Abedi, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Mahsa Mirzababaei, Fereshteh Safian, Ehsan Shojaeefar Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 11 Mar 2021 18:50:44 +0000 Prevalence of Primary Infertility in Iranian Men; a Systematic Review <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Primary infertility (PI) is one of the most common problems with an increasing incidence globally. Studies conducted in several parts of Iran have reported different a prevalence for this infertility type, so we investigated PI prevalence in the Iranian male population. <strong>Material and methods: </strong>This study was performed using the keywords "primary", "infertility", "prevalence", "men", "male", and "Iran" in international databases, including MedLine, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, as well as domestic databases, including scientific information database (SID) and Magiran. We included original articles estimating PI prevalence and the cause of infertility in the general population and infertile Iranian couples referred to infertility centers. PI prevalence in men was not reported in any included studies, so using weighting based on sample size, the average PI prevalence in the studied couples and any male factors ("male" factors plus "both" factors) was estimated. <strong>Results: </strong>Thirty-two studies were obtained in the initial search. Ultimately, seven studies (five studies on infertile couples and two studies on the general population) were selected. The weighted average prevalence of PI was 81.26% (81.1-81.43) in referred infertile couples and 5.76% (5.63-5.89) in the general population. The overall estimate of PI prevalence in these groups was 46.35% (46.15-46.54) and 1.93% (1.89-1.97), respectively.<strong> Conclusion: </strong>Although the PI prevalence in different parts of Iran has been reported in the mentioned population, there was no domestic study on PI prevalence in men, so further studies to validate our results are needed.</p> Mohammad Reza Moein, Ehsan Shojaeefar, Neda Taghizabet, Maryam Jazayeri, Mahta Abbasi Fashami, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Jalil Hosseinee Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Thu, 11 Mar 2021 19:15:55 +0000 Effects of Y chromosome Microdeletions on Male Fertility <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>: </strong>In the process of human reproduction, spermatogenesis is one of the most important stages, which is controled by special genes on Y chromosome. Previous studies show that some infertile men have microdeletions on Y chromosome, which cause the reduction of sperm count. Three prominent spermatogenesis loci have been identified on the Y chromosome and entitled “azoospermia factors” (<em>AZFa</em>, <em>b, </em>and <em>c</em>). Hereby, this review article aimed to investigate the content of the Y chromosome microdeletions and their importance in male fertility. <strong>Methods:</strong> Data and information were collected on English-language articles from PubMed and MEDLINE databases. For Persian articles, Persian-language databases, including SID Scientific Database, IranMedex Medical Articles Database, IranDoc (Iran Scientific Information and Documents Research Institute), Magiran Publication Information, and MedLib were investigated. More than 50 articles on Y chromosome microdeletions and infertility published during 2000-2020 were studied. <strong>Results:</strong> Previous studies implicated that Y chromosome microdeletions in AZFa, AZFb, and AZFc regions are accompanied by defect in spermatogenesis, leading to oligo / azoospermia. Patients with AZFa and AZFb microdeletions present secretory azoospermia and do not have sperm in their seminiferous tubules. Complete AZFc deletion involves region b2/b4, which contains a total of 12 genes. Incomplete deletion of AZFc includes b1/b3, b2/b3 and gr/gr. The most common of which are gr/gr. In men with gr/gr deletion, sperm count and motility were lower than control group. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and testicular sperm extraction (TESE) helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization.</p> Hesamoddin Sajadi, Neda Taghizabet, Fereshteh Aliakbari, Fatemeh Rezaei-Tazangi, Mohammad Ali Sedighi Gilani Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 09 Jun 2021 05:54:00 +0000 Adult Posterior Urethral Valve: a Case Report of the Oldest Known Patient <p>A posterior urethral valve (PUV) is a congenital obstructive defect of the male urethra, and sometimes maybe life threatening. The diagnosis of PUV is usually made early because of its symptoms and has rarely been diagnosed in adults for the first time in life. Here we report a rare case of an adult PUV in a 67 year-old man with 40 years history of urinary obstruction complaints with coincidence type 1 and 2 of PUV who underwent transurethral resection of the bladder neck and valve ablation. After 6 months follow-up, no evidence of urinary obstruction observed.</p> Jalil Hosseini, Anahita Ansari Djafari, Seyyed Ali Hojjati Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Wed, 17 Mar 2021 08:59:41 +0000 Scrotal Leiomyoma; anUnusual Cause for Scrotal Mass <p>Leiomyomas are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors arising from smooth muscle cells. Cutaneous leiomyoma constitutes small percentage of all the leiomyomas. However, genital leiomyomas, such as those of the scrotum have an even lower incidence rate. A 43-year-old man presented with complaints of a painless swelling in the left side of the scrotum. A clinical diagnosis of scrotal wall fibroma was made and the swelling was excised which had homogenous, grey-white areas with whorling and histologically showed features of leiomyoma. Here we present a rare cause of scrotal mass in a middle-aged man.</p> Goutami DasNayak, Prita Pradhan, Jayasree Rath, Samit Kumar Badhai Copyright (c) 2021 Men's Health Journal Tue, 20 Apr 2021 06:08:09 +0000