Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl <p><em><strong>Bioethics and Health Law&nbsp;<em><strong>Journal (BHL)</strong></em></strong></em>, which benefits from an international editorial board, is published Continuous by "Biometrics and Health Law Institute"; "International Think-Tank of Human Dignity"; and "<a href="http://elm.sbmu.ac.ir/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Medical Ethics and Law Research Center"</strong></a>,&nbsp;<a href="http://sbmu.ac.ir/" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Shahid Beheshti&nbsp;University of Medical Sciences</strong></a>. Contents include peer-reviewed research papers covering different aspects of bioethics and health law. This Journal accepts Original Papers, Review Articles, Systematic Review Articles, Case Reports, Short Communications and Letters to the Editor. This journal publishes articles on Bioethics, Health Law, Medical Ethics,&nbsp;Research Ethics, Nursing Ethics, Midwifery Ethics, Patients' Rights, Nursing Rights, Pharmaceutical Rights, Intellectual Property Rights in the Medicine and Pharmaceutical Fields, Psychiatric Rights, Biotechnology Rights and related topics.&nbsp;This journal adheres to all recommendations and guidelines of&nbsp;International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) and Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).</p> Biometrics and Health Law Institute; International Think-Tank of Human Dignity; ​Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran en-US Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2538-3272 <p>Based on the obtained author agreement upon submission, "<strong>Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL)</strong>" is the copyright owner of the published material. However, according to Bethesda Statement, all works published in this journal are open access and freely available to anyone on the journal web site without cost under creative common license BY-NC-SA. Based on this license, under the condition of proper citation, “<strong>Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL)</strong>” grants to all users the following rights:</p><p>1. Free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual access to all published materials.</p><p>2. To copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work.</p><p>3. To make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any non-commercial purpose under the same license.</p> Negotiating Rules and Interpretations in the Field of Healthcare Rights https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/10.22037 <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="68%"> <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: The article argues for more active participation of ethnocultural minorities in healthcare decisions and highlights the relevance of strategies aimed at creating a bottom-up engagement of people and groups, as well as of measures aimed at broader organizational flexibility, in order to meet migrants' and minorities' needs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The current study aimed at casting light on negotiating rules and interpretations in the field of healthcare rights and its scope using primary and authentic sources on law and rights and seeking the related keywords in these sources.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: The principles of research ethics have been observed in studies and citing the primary texts and sources.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Finally, the article clarifies that these strategies are not simply the outcome of a welcoming attitude of the Western healthcare system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: but may be interpreted as a specific duty resulting from the notion of 'particularly vulnerable groups', as formulated by the ECtHR in its case law: when vulnerable groups are at stake, every decision about state actions and rules regarding healthcare should start from an aprioristic favor towards the needs of vulnerable minority groups.</p> <p><strong><sup>*</sup></strong><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Fabio Macioce;&nbsp;<strong>Email:</strong> f.macioce@lumsa.it<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3638-001X">https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3638-001X</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Macioce F. Negotiating Rules and Interpretations in the Field of Healthcare Rights. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1):1-14 (e1). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v1i.21297">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v1i.21297</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> Fabio Macioce Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-05-11 2022-05-11 2 1 1 14 (e1) 10.22037/bhl.v2i.21297 The Legal, Ethical, and Cultural Issues of Xenotransplantation in Iran https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/21455 <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Xenotransplantation is a question of "ethics between man and animal". Organ transplantation must be viewed concerning the prevailing cultural, religious, and socio­economic conditions of a nation. The major limitation to applying xenotransplantation for the treatment of disease is a shortage of human donors. We may come up with the question of whether xenotransplantation in Iran is practical or if we will have legal, ethical, and cultural problems.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This research is analytical- descriptive. We first discuss xenotransplantation and its effect on it human rights and human dignity and animal rights in Islam. Then, we will explain the personal, social, and cultural effects of xenotransplantation in Iran, the ethical response to this issue, and the necessity of legislation about xenotransplantation in Iran.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: Ethical principles were considered in searching and citing the literature.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In recent years, the necessity of xenotransplantation has increased and thousands of men, women, and children suffer from end-stage organ failure in Iran. Regarding this, the present study evaluated Xenotransplantation with attention to animal rights in Islam, laws, ethical and legal state, and religious and cultural beliefs in Iran. In Iran, there are no special laws about this issue and there is just research guideline for researchers that it is not enough and complete. It will cause problems for patients who need essential transplant operations.</p> <p class="Default"><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although a comprehensive investigation of this issue has not been accomplished, we can find problems with paying attention to legal and religious beliefs in society.</p> <p><strong><sup>*</sup></strong><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Soraya Mahmoudi;&nbsp;<strong>Email:</strong> msoraya9591@yahoo.com<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3638-001X">https://orcid.org/</a><a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3399-1360">0000-0002-3399-1360</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Kazemi A, Mahmoudi S, Ehsandoust N. The Legal, Ethical, and Cultural Issues of Xenotransplantation in Iran. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1):1-5 (e2). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v1i1.38185">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.21455</a></p> Abdollhasan Kazemi Soraya Mahmoudi Nasrin Ehsandoust Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-05-22 2022-05-22 2 1 1 5 (e2) 10.22037/bhl.v2i1.21455 The Role of Genetic Identification in the Scientific Discovery of Crime through the Review of DNA in the Crime Scene https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/24531 <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: DNA fingerprinting, one of the great discoveries of the late 20th century, has revolutionized forensic investigations. DNA analysis is frequently used to acquire information from biological material to aid inquiries associated with criminal offenses, disaster victim identification, and missing person investigations.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This analytical-descriptive research gathered relevant data in a literature search. After a description of the fundamentals and definitions, ethical texts were subsequently analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: Ethical principles were considered in searching and citing the literature.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In our country, since the year 1388, the need for having a genetic database in Iran was felt and the head of the judiciary ordered the creation of a genealogy database in light of the sensitivity of the matter and helped to resolve the cases quickly.</p> <p>Legal genetic laboratories in Iran began their work in the 1970s. In Iran, firstly, the forensic laboratories in Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan began their activities.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The actions of governments in the field of criminal law are not always conducive to accountability through the use of punishment. Today, the Special Criminal Tribunal is focused on taking preventive measures. Prevention of the commission of crimes is carried out in a variety of ways, in which we focus on preventive methods with an emphasis on genetic science in this paper. If the genetic information of the criminals present in the genealogy bank exists and is also an example of a crime scene, it would be possible to identify the offender before using other methods of identifying criminals and arresting individuals. It helps to quickly retrieve the accused and to succeed. Experiences in many countries have shown that by doing this, you can significantly reduce costs and achieve less favorable results with less testing.</p> <p><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Behnaz Vahid Yeganeh;&nbsp;<strong>Email:</strong> behnaz63a@gmail.com<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3638-001X">https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3638-001X</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Abbasi M, Vahid Yeganeh B. The Role of Genetic Identification in the Scientific Discovery of Crime through the Review of DNA in the Crime Scene. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1): 1-8 (e3). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.24531">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.24531</a></p> Behnaz Vahid Yeganeh Mahmoud Abbasi Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-05-10 2022-05-10 2 1 1 8 (e3) 10.22037/bhl.v2i1.24531 Measurement of Social Factors Affecting Self-Declaration Health (Case study, 6 and 16 districts of Tehran) https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/38952 <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="68%"> <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Health has other dimensions in addition to its physical dimension. Health is a result of socio-economic and cultural life conditions and qualities and has close relation with economic stability, environment, neighborhood situation, health care, social, cultural context, education level, and knowledge. In this study, we examined the possible effect of social factors on diverse health levels. The aim is to investigate the relationship between health and independent variables such as lifestyle, health literacy, and socio-economic status.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data was gathered with a survey method and 256 sample sizes of 3 and 16 municipal districts of Tehran using structured and semi-structured questionnaires. Validity was examined by content validity, and reliability was examined by Cronbach’s alpha. Data were analyzed with SPSS software.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: In this study, verbal informed consent of participants was obtained followed by an explanation about the purpose of the study, anonymity, and confidentiality of patients' information.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Results indicate that the general condition of health has a significant relation with all independent variables (lifestyle, health literacy, and socioeconomic status). In examining the relation of two-dimension of physical and mental health with independent variables; physical health has a significant relation with gender, healthy lifestyle, health literacy, social support, and socioeconomic status; and mental health has a significant relationship with a healthy lifestyle, health literacy, social capital.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Analysis of stepwise regression shows that independent variables explain 9 percent of health variation so that health literacy has more effect and with adding demographical variables increases to 17 percent.</p> <p><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Sajjad Yahak;&nbsp;<strong>Email:</strong> syyahaks@gmail.com<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0037-7935">https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0037-7935</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Abbasi M, Yahak S, Keshavarz dizjini S. Measurement of Social Factors Affecting Self-Declaration Health (Case study, 6 and 16 districts of Tehran). Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1): 1-10 (e4). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v1i1.38185">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.38952</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Mahmoud Abbasi Sajjad Yahak Sara Keshavarz dizjini Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-04-02 2022-04-02 2 1 1 10 (e4) 10.22037/bhl.v2i1.38952 Spiritual Issues and Challenges of Children with Cancer: Mothers' Experience https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/19103 <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Cancer is a chronic disease and the second leading cause of death in children. In addition to clinical issues, challenges regarding spiritual issues exist. This study seeks to identify spiritual issues and challenges faced and experienced by mothers of children suffering from cancer.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The current research was conducted using a phenomenological approach and content analysis. To gather information, 21 mothers were selected none randomly and were interviewed for a period of three months. Data were analyzed by comparing the responses of the interviewees constantly during the three months.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: The study followed standard ethics guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Seven themes were extracted via content analysis: philosophical questioning, faith and hope, relationship with nature, play and leisure, love and social support, expressing fear and anxiety and aggression, and expressing hope for the future. It was found that mothers were concerned about various philosophical questions raised by their children as well as issues regarding faith and belief and the quality of love, attention, and social support received.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It is argued that empowering parents to play a more effective role in the spiritual care of children suffering from cancer may be a vital step in improving palliative care for these children as well as improving the psychological well-being of both cancer patients and their parents.</p> <p><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Somayeh Borjalilu; <strong>Email:</strong> sborjalilu@gmail.com<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7348-0672">https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7348-0672</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Borjalilu S. Spiritual issues and challenges of children with cancer: Mothers' experience. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1): 1-11 (e5). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.19103">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.19103</a></p> Somayeh Borjalilu Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 2 1 1 11 (e5) 10.22037/bhl.v2i1.19103 Economic Inequality in the Healthcare Quality and its Decomposition https://journals.sbmu.ac.ir/index.php/bhl/article/view/38954 <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="68%"> <p><strong>Background and Aim</strong>: Assessing the quality of the health care system is considered a basic step in the development of quality improvement programs. To date, no research has been conducted assessing the inequality in satisfaction with health care services in Iran using the assets. This study aimed to determine the satisfaction with healthcare services and determine the inequality of satisfaction with the quality of healthcare services.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was a descriptive-analytical survey of 844 people in Arak, multi-stage sampling was performed. The asset variables were used for Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In the present study, satisfaction with healthcare quality was a categorical variable. All analysis was conducted using STATA 12.0, and a P-value lower than 0.05 was taken to show statistical significance.</p> <p><strong>Ethical Considerations</strong>: After the explanation of the study objectives, written informed consent was obtained from all participants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Mean age of the participants was 33 ± 10.4 years. The level of satisfaction with the quality of health care services was that of agreed. Satisfaction with the quality of health services among people with higher socioeconomic status is more concentrated and statistically significant. The percentage of illiteracy in inequality is 84.18 percent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Lower-than-high-school education can reduce inequality. Being single, living in rural areas, and having old age can decrease inequality. Among the variables, lower socioeconomic status has the largest contribution to inequality of satisfaction with health care. The results of the study revealed a significant inequality in the quality of health services in such a way that satisfaction with the quality of health care is significantly concentrated among the people with higher socioeconomic status. Decomposition of inequality index indicated that education level, age, gender, place of residence, marital status, and socioeconomic status play a significant role in the formation of this inequality, the largest contribution of which is attributable to socioeconomic status.</p> <p><strong>Corresponding Author:</strong> Rahmatollah Moradzadeh;&nbsp;<strong>Email:</strong> moradzadehr@yahoo.com<em><a href="mailto:f_zameni@yahoo.com;%20%20">; &nbsp;</a></em><strong>ORCID:</strong>&nbsp;<a href="https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4952-3454">https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4952-3454</a></p> <p><strong>Please cite&nbsp;this article as</strong><strong>:</strong> Sharahi N, Taheri M, Moradzadeh R. Economic Inequality in the Healthcare Quality and its Decomposition. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1): 1-8 (e6). <a href="http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.38954">http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.38954</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Nahid Sharahi Majid Taheri Rahmatollah Moradzadeh Copyright (c) 2022 Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL) 2022-06-02 2022-06-02 2 1 1 8 (e6) 10.22037/bhl.v2i1.38954