Gender Dysphoria in Iran: legal and Islamic Jurisprudence Perspectives Gender Dysphoria in Iran
Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL),
Vol. 1 (2021),
Page 1-10 (e4)
Background and Aim: Gender Dysphoria is the formal diagnosis of psychiatrists that is used to describe a person who has been seriously dissatisfied with his or her gender at birth or the gender role that society considered for them. Some research and studies have been conducted related to investigating social and family dimensions and consequences of this disorder. Surveys and case studies have been done regarding the personality disorders, and personality patterns, and the adaptability of the role and sexual identity of these patients with their new gender, but there are still unanswered questions in this case. Thus, by investigating the legitimacy of sex change surgery in terms of jurisprudence and legal elements before and after sex change, this study tries to remove the ambiguity in this area.
Materials and Methods: In this study, using keywords such as sex change, Gender Identity Disorder, and ‘Gender Dysphoria’ in the jurisprudence and legal areas of SID, Google Scholar, Magiran, Noormags databases, the related resources were studied and analyzed.
Ethical Considerations: Honesty and trusteeship were taken into consideration in the analysis of information and sources.
Findings: There is no single perspective in terms of legitimacy or prohibition of sex-change surgery among scholars and Grand Ayatollahs. Some have permitted sex-change surgery and some others believe that superficial sex change is not permissible without a creatural background. There is also a legal gap not only in the Islamic Penalty Code (IPC) but also in other Iranian laws on the provisions and conditions of sex change. This issue has raised ambiguity in the rights and duties of people seeking sex-change surgery. This is while, in the laws of many other countries, this issue has been explicitly mentioned, and this framework greatly contributes to many people with ‘Gender Dysphoria’ and removes confusion in this regard.
Conclusion: In Iranian law, the approval of laws regarding the provision of medical facilities, insurance services and the adoption of clear and transparent rules on the status of marriage, dowry, inheritance, custody, and guardianship of children will remarkably contribute to the process of recognition of people with difficulties in sexual identity among men and women. Also when considering the genetic and biological factors that contribute to Gender Dysphoria, the promotion of the culture of dealing with the phenomenon of sex transfer applicants through raising awareness in the media is felt.
*Corresponding Author: Mostafa Vahedi; Email: email@example.com; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2432-5323
Please cite this article as: Vahedi M. Alimardani A. Behrouzih MR. Rayejian Asli M. Gender Dysphoria in Iran: legal and Islamic Jurisprudence Perspectives. Bioeth Health Law J. 2021; 1:1-10 (e4). http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v1i1.38128
- Gender Identity
- Gender Role
- Gender Dysphoria
- Sex Change
How to Cite
Babu R, Shah U. Gender identity disorder (GID) in adolescents and adults with differences of sex development (DSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Urology. 2020 Nov 12.
Silva SM, Vieira Ferreira MM, Amaral-Bastos MM, Monteiro MA, Couto GR. Diagnosis of knowledge on sexuality among adolescents. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem. 2020 May 11;33.
Saberi SM, Mostafavi SS, Delavari M. Comparative study of the process of gender reassignment surgery applicants referred to Tehran Legal Medical Commission according to international standards. Forensic Medicine 2010; 16(3): 205-214. [Persian]
Yazdanpanah L, Samadian F. Gender identity disorder (heterosexual) with emphasis on the role of the family: a comparative study of patients referred to Kerman Welfare Organization. Journal of Iranian Social Studies 2011; 5(1): 176-208. [Persian]
Ahmadzad-Asl M, Jalali AH, Alavi K, Naserbakht M, Taban M, Mohseninia-Omrani K, et al. The epidemiology of transsexualism in Iran. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health 2010; 15(1): 83-93.
Arjmand M. [Translation of Summary of Psychiatry (Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry)]. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. 10th ed. Tehran: Arjmand Publicaiton; 2010. Vol.1. [Persian]
Afghah A, Khoshsorat Movafagh A, Zarean M. The effect of transsexual change in non-financial relationships of couple in Iranian family law. Biannual Journal of Family Law And Jurisprudence. 2020 Oct 22;25(73):135-55.
Petoft A, Momeni-Rad A. Toward Human Behavior Sciences from the Perspective of Neurolaw. International Journal of Public Mental Health and Neuroscience. 2015;2(2):29-33.
Abbasi M, Petoft A,. Citizenship Rights: from Good Governance to Administrative Procedures. Tehran: Justice Publication. 2017:205-6.
Kahani N, Shojaie PF. Gender Identity Disorder in transgenders. Tehran: Culture and Publishing institution of Teymurzadeh - Tabib Publication; 2002.
Sabouri M. [Translation of Sociology]. Giddens A. Tehran: Nay Publicaiton; 2007.
Hashemian K, Braheni MN, Birashk B, Beik M, Zamani R, Shamolou S, et al. [Translation of Introduction to Psychology]. Atkinson RL, Atkinson RC, Smith EE, Bern DJ, Nolen-Hoeksema S. Hilgard's. Tehran: Roshd Publication; 2008. [Persian]
Nourian N, Doulatshahi B, Rezaee O. Study of personality disorders and personality traits of men with gender identity disorder. Investigation of Personality Disordes and Personality Traits in Men with Gender Identity Disorder. Journal of Rehabilitation 2008; 9(1): 55-60. [Persian]
Rezaee F. [Translation of Summary of Psychiatry (Behavioral Sciences/ Clinical Psychiatry)]. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. 10th ed. Tehran: Arjmand Publicaiton; 2012. Vol.2. [Persian]
Raisee F, Nasehi A. Gender Identity Disorder. Tehran: Tehran Seda Publication; 2004.
Bishop MD, Fish JN, Hammack PL, Russell ST. Sexual identity development milestones in three generations of sexual minority people: A national probability sample. Developmental psychology. 2020 Aug 24.
Javaheri F, Hosseinzadeh M. Gender Identity Disorder social consequences of social capital and quality of life in Iran wants sex change. Journal of Iranian Social Studies 2011; 3(5): 20-21. [Persian]
Mohamadi KH, Zamani R, Vaezi SE, Kouhsar AEH. Evaluation of personal characteristics of sex Transfer Individuals. Journal of Psychology of Tabriz Uni, 2010; 5(17): 107-127. [Persian]
Nikokhou M. DSM-V (American Psychiatric Association). 7th ed. Tehran: Sokhan Publicaiton; 2019.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
Mirkhani AE, Taghizadeh MM. Jurisprudence and legal permissibility of transsexuality. Medical Figh 2012; 3(9): 65-99. [Persian]
Asscheman H, Diamond M, Ceglie D, Kruijver F, Martin J, Playdon Z. Definition and Synopsis of the Etiology of Adult Gender Identity Disorder and Transsexualism. [Internet]: Gender Counselor; 2002.
Dewey JM. Medicalized Transgender Bodies: Depriving Autonomy, Conferring Humanness, and Bestowing Cisgenderism 1. InTrans Lives in a Globalizing World 2020 Sep 30 (pp. 93-109). Routledge.
Gashtasbi SA. Sexual disorder and lost identity. Qom: Hadaf Sabz Publication; 2010.
Abbasi M, Nejadsarvari N, Kiani M, Borhani F, Bazmi S, Tavaokkoli SN, Rasouli H. Moral distress in physicians practicing in hospitals affiliated to medical sciences universities. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2014 Oct;16(10).
Kiani M, Abbasi M, Ahmadi M, Salehi B. Organ transplantation in Iran; Current state and challenges with a view on ethical consideration. Journal of clinical medicine. 2018 Mar;7(3):45.
Baker LA, Bezdjian S, Raine A. Behavioral genetics: The science of antisocial behavior. Law and Contemporary Problems 2006; 69(1-2): 7.
Bao AM, Swaab DF. Sexual differentiation of the human brain: Relation to gender identity, sexual orientation and neuropsychiatric disorders. Front Neuroendocrinol 2011; 32(2): 214-226.
Coolidge FL, Thede LL, Young SE. The heritability of gender identity disorder in a child and adolescent twin sample. Behavior Genetics 2002; 32(4): 251-257.
Savic I, Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF. 4 Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation. Progress in brain research; 2010. Vol.186 p.41-62.
Heylens G, De Cuypere G, Zucker KJ, Schelfaut C, Elaut E, Vanden Bossche H, et al. Gender identity disorder in twins: a review of the case report literature. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2012; 9(3): 751-757.
Schneider HJ, Pickel J, Stalla GK. Typical female 2nd–4th finger length (2D: 4D) ratios in male-to-female transsexuals-possible implications for prenatal androgen exposure. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2006; 31(2): 265-269.
Hare L, Bernard P, Sánchez FJ, Baird PN, Vilain E, Kennedy T, et al. Androgen receptor repeat length polymorphism associated with male-to-female transsexualism. Biol Psychiatry 2009; 65(1): 93-96.
Bentz EK, Hefler LA, Kaufmann U, Huber JC, Kolbus A, Tempfer CB. A polymorphism of the CYP17 gene related to sex steroid metabolism is associated with female-to-male but not male-to-female transsexualism. Fertility and sterility. 2008 Jul 31;90(1):56-9.
Nourizadeh R, Hadi N, Hanid AE. Ethical challenges in determining gender by non-medical approaches using Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of embryos. Journal of Medical Ethics 2010. 4(12): 107-132. [Persian]
Chung WC, De Vries GJ, Swaab DF. Sexual differentiation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in humans may extend into adulthood. The Journal of Neuroscience 2002; 22(3): 1027-1033.
Morgado AM, Vale-Dias MdL. The antisocial phenomenon in adolescence: What is literature telling us? Aggression and Violent Behavior; 2013.
Shepard KN, Michopoulos V, Toufexis DJ, Wilson ME. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental impact on sex differences in social behavior. Physiol Behav 2009; 97(2): 157-170.
Hajiesmaeili MR, Abbasi M, Jafari NJ, Abdoljabari M, Fani M, Mesri M, Baghernezhad F, Shahosseini AA, Azimi AV. Spiritual health concept: A hybridized study. Medical History Journal. 2016;6(21):15-49.
Zucker K. Children with gender identity disorder: Is there a best practice?. Neuropsychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence 2008; 56(6): 358-364.
Zucker KJ, Bradley SJ. Gender identity and psychosexual disorders. FOCUS: The Journal of Lifelong Learning in Psychiatry 2005; 3(4): 598-617.
Eslami A. [Translation of Tahrir ul-Vassileh ]. Khomeini A. Qom: Office of Islamic Publication; 2008. [Persian]
Clergymen Education Office and drafting legal texts Qom (Deputy Education judiciary), [Software Application] Treasure Judicial Esteftaat; 2006.
Computer Research Center of Ghaemieh Isfahan. Dah Marja’ Resale Software. Isfahan: CRCGI; 2006.
Ayatollah Ardebilie. Personal Estefta’ (written) from his Honours Office; 2009.
Petoft A. Concept and scope of the general principles of administrative law and referring possibility in the judicial procedure. The Judiciary Research Institute Publishing Center.
Ayatollah Golpayeganie. Personal Estefta’(written) from his Honours Office; 2009.
Lankarani AEMF. Jame Ol Masael Estefta’at. Qom: Amir Ol-elm Publication; 2005. Vol.2.
Shirazi M. Collection of New Estefta’at. Qom: School of Imam Ali Ebn-e Abi Talib; 1996. Vol.1.
Hamadani AEN. One Thousand and One jurisprudence issue (Esteftaat Collection) with the revised and additions.Qom: Mahdi Mo'oud Institute; 2009.
Sobhani J. Transgender in Islamic jurisprudence. Fiqh Ahle Beit 2012; 18(1): 5-16. [Persian]
Madani YT. Almasael Almostahadese (According to the fatwa of Ayatollah Syed Yousuf Madani) (New Issues).Qom: His Honours Office; 2006. Vol.3.
Abbasi M, Petoft A. Citizenship Rights: from the Foundations to the Social Basis. Tehran: Justice Publication. 2017:58-63.
Kariminia MM. Sex change from Jurisprudence and legal perspective. Ma’refat Monthly 2000; 9(4): 76-82. [Persian]
Abdi H. Imam Khomeini's Innovations in Changing Sex in Spousal Sentences. Turkish Journal of Computer and Mathematics Education (TURCOMAT). 2021 May 10;12(11):6669-73.
Momen M, Habibitabar H. Jurisprudence and legal study of sex change and its consequences. Islamic Science 2006; 1(3): 3-24.
Agha'mashadi FA, Abdi Y. Rules and effects of sex change. School of Social Sciences 2008; 12(3): 1-22. [Persian]
Bariklou A. The legal effect of sex. School of Social Sciences 2004; 8(3): 107-130. [Persian]
Nazarlou ZS, Mirsalim MSA, Ghoreshi N. Introduction to legal status in the international legal system and national double sex: Tehran: Shahid Beheshti; 2011.
Abbasi M, Petoft A. Citizenship rights, from Principles to social Platform. Tehran: Legal Publishers. 2017:85.
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- PDF Downloaded: 0 times