Spiritual Issues and Challenges of Children with Cancer: Mothers' Experience Spiritual Issues and Challenges of Children with Cancer
Bioethics and Health Law Journal (BHL),
Vol. 2 No. 1 (2022),
Page 1-11 (e5)
Background and Aim: Cancer is a chronic disease and the second leading cause of death in children. In addition to clinical issues, challenges regarding spiritual issues exist. This study seeks to identify spiritual issues and challenges faced and experienced by mothers of children suffering from cancer.
Methods: The current research was conducted using a phenomenological approach and content analysis. To gather information, 21 mothers were selected none randomly and were interviewed for a period of three months. Data were analyzed by comparing the responses of the interviewees constantly during the three months.
Ethical Considerations: The study followed standard ethics guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality.
Results: Seven themes were extracted via content analysis: philosophical questioning, faith and hope, relationship with nature, play and leisure, love and social support, expressing fear and anxiety and aggression, and expressing hope for the future. It was found that mothers were concerned about various philosophical questions raised by their children as well as issues regarding faith and belief and the quality of love, attention, and social support received.
Conclusion: It is argued that empowering parents to play a more effective role in the spiritual care of children suffering from cancer may be a vital step in improving palliative care for these children as well as improving the psychological well-being of both cancer patients and their parents.
Corresponding Author: Somayeh Borjalilu; Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7348-0672
Please cite this article as: Borjalilu S. Spiritual issues and challenges of children with cancer: Mothers' experience. Bioeth Health Law J. 2022; 2(1): 1-11 (e5). http://doi.org/10.22037/bhl.v2i1.19103
- spiritual issues
How to Cite
Peris-Bonet R, Salmerón D, Martínez-Beneito MA, Galceran J, Marcos-Gragera R, Felipe S, González V, de Toledo Codina JS, Spanish Childhood Cancer Epidemiology Working Group. Childhood cancer incidence and survival in Spain. Annals of Oncology. 2010 May 1;21:iii103-10.
Delgado-Guay MO, Hui D, Parsons HA, Govan K, De la Cruz M, Thorney S, Bruera E. Spirituality, religiosity, and spiritual pain in advanced cancer patients. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2011 Jun 1;41(6):986-94.
Penman J, Oliver M, Harrington A. Spirituality and spiritual engagement as perceived by palliative care clients and caregivers. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, The. 2009 Jun;26(4):29-35.
Ferrell B, Otis-Green S, Economou D. Spirituality in cancer care at the end of life. The Cancer Journal. 2013 Sep 1;19(5):431-7.
Lyon ME, Jacobs S, Briggs L, Cheng YI, Wang J. A longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial of advance care planning for teens with cancer: anxiety, depression, quality of life, advance directives, spirituality. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2014 Jun 1;54(6):710-7.
Lycett D, Patel R. Spiritual Care within Dietetic Practice: A Systematic Literature Review. Journal of Religion and Health. 2022 Apr 29:1-28.
Darby K, Nash P, Nash S. Understanding and responding to spiritual and religious needs of young people with cancer. Cancer Nursing Practice. 2014 Mar 11;13(2).
Richert RA, Granqvist P: Religious and spiritual development in childhood. Handbook of the psychology of religion and spirituality 2:165-182, 2013.
Good M, Willoughby T: Spiritual Development, in Encyclopedia of Adolescence, Vol Springer, 2011, pp 2824-2835.
Wanden K: Listening to children on the spiritual journey: guidance for those who teach and nurture, in, Vol Taylor & Francis, 2011.
Giesenberg A: The phenomenon of preschool children's spirituality. Queensland University of Technology, 2007.
McSherry DW, Smith J: How do children express their spiritual needs? Paediatric nursing 19:17-20, 2007.
Puchalski C, Ferrell B, Virani R, Otis-Green S, Baird P, Bull J, Chochinov H, Handzo G, Nelson-Becker H, Prince-Paul M, Pugliese K. Improving the quality of spiritual care as a dimension of palliative care: the report of the Consensus Conference. Journal of palliative medicine. 2009 Oct 1;12(10):885-904.
Byrne M. Spirituality in palliative care: what language do we need? Learning from pastoral care. International Journal of Palliative Nursing. 2007 Mar;13(3):118-24.
Aschenbrenner AP, Winters JM, Belknap RA. Integrative review: parent perspectives on care of their child at the end of life. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2012 Oct 1;27(5):514-22.
Agrimson LB, Taft LB. Spiritual crisis: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2009 Feb;65(2):454-61.
Taylor-Brown J, Campbell-Enns H: Distress Screening and Responding in an Ambulatory Cancer Center. Handbook of Oncology Social Work: Psychosocial Care for People with Cancer:137, 2015.
Villagomeza LR. Mending broken hearts: the role of spirituality in cardiac illness: a research synthesis, 1991–2004. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2006 Jul 1;20(4):169-86.
Muscari ME: Let kids be kids: rescuing childhood, Univ of Scranton Pr, 2006.
Best M, Aldridge L, Butow P, Olver I, Price MA, Webster F. Treatment of holistic suffering in cancer: A systematic literature review. Palliative Medicine. 2015 Dec;29(10):885-98.
Miller SR. Children's fears: a review of the literature with implications for nursing research and practice. Nursing Research. 1979 Jul 1;28(4):217-23.
Beacham BL, Deatrick JA. Children with chronic conditions: perspectives on condition management. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2015 Jan 1;30(1):25-35.
Menossi MJ, Zorzo JC, Lima RA. The dialogic life-death in care delivery to adolescents with cancer. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2012;20:126-34.
Jolley J, Shields L. The evolution of family-centered care. Journal of pediatric nursing. 2009 Apr 1;24(2):164-70.
Kazak AE, Noll RB. The integration of psychology in pediatric oncology research and practice: collaboration to improve care and outcomes for children and families. American Psychologist. 2015 Feb;70(2):146.
Ygge BM, Lindholm C, Arnetz J. Hospital staff perceptions of parental involvement in paediatric hospital care. Journal of advanced nursing. 2006 Mar;53(5):534-42.
Kells M, Rogers J, Oppenheimer SC, Blaine K, McCabe M, McGrath E, Woodring B, Geller AC. The Teachable Moment Captured: A Framework for Nurse‐led Smoking Cessation Interventions for Parents of Hospitalized Children. Public health nursing. 2013 Sep;30(5):468-73.
Abdulbaki MA, Gaafar YA, Waziry OG. Maternal Versus Pediatric Nurses Attitudes Regarding Mothers’ Participation in the Care of Their Hospitalized Children. Journal of American science. 2011;7(9):316-27.
Power N, Franck L. Parent participation in the care of hospitalized children: a systematic review. Journal of advanced nursing. 2008 Jun;62(6):622-41.
Murray SA, Kendall M, Grant E, Boyd K, Barclay S, Sheikh A. Patterns of social, psychological, and spiritual decline toward the end of life in lung cancer and heart failure. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2007 Oct 1;34(4):393-402.
Coyne I, O’Neill C, Murphy M, Costello T, O’Shea R. What does family‐centred care mean to nurses and how do they think it could be enhanced in practice. Journal of advanced nursing. 2011 Dec;67(12):2561-73.
Tourigny J, Chapados C, Pineault R. Determinants of parental behaviour when children undergo day‐care surgery. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2005 Dec;52(5):490-7.
Büssing A, Balzat HJ, Heusser P. Spiritual needs of patients with chronic pain diseases and cancer-validation of the spiritual needs questionnaire. European journal of medical research. 2010 Dec;15(6):266-73.
Rahnama M, Khoshknab MF, Maddah SS, Ahmadi F. Iranian cancer patients’ perception of spirituality: a qualitative content analysis study. BMC nursing. 2012 Dec;11(1):1-8.
Taylor EJ, Petersen C, Oyedele O, Haase J. Spirituality and spiritual care of adolescents and young adults with cancer. InSeminars in oncology nursing 2015 Aug 1 (Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 227-241). WB Saunders.
Gupta AA, Papadakos JK, Jones JM, Amin L, Chang EK, Korenblum C, Mina DS, McCabe L, Mitchell L, Giuliani ME. Reimagining care for adolescent and young adult cancer programs: moving with the times. Cancer. 2016 Apr 1;122(7):1038-46.
Torabi F, Sajjadi M, Nourian M, Borumandnia N, Farahani AS. The effects of spiritual care on anxiety in adolescents with cancer. Supportive & Palliative Care in Cancer. 2017 Sep 20;1(1).
Bourdillon M. Neglected dimensions of child well-being. Children's Geographies. 2014 Oct 2;12(4):497-503.
Pendleton SM, Cavalli KS, Pargament KI, Nasr SZ. Religious/spiritual coping in childhood cystic fibrosis: A qualitative study. Pediatrics. 2002 Jan;109(1):e8-.
Cotton S, Kudel I, Roberts YH, Pallerla H, Tsevat J, Succop P, Michael SY. Spiritual well-being and mental health outcomes in adolescents with or without inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2009 May 1;44(5):485-92.
Benore E, Pargament KI, Pendleton S. An initial examination of religious coping in children with asthma. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. 2008 Nov 10;18(4):267-90.
Cotton S, Grossoehme D, Rosenthal SL, McGrady ME, Roberts YH, Hines J, Michael SY, Tsevat J. Religious/spiritual coping in adolescents with sickle cell disease: A pilot study. Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology. 2009 May;31(5):313.
Sposito AM, Silva‐Rodrigues FM, Sparapani VD, Pfeifer LI, de Lima RA, Nascimento LC. Coping strategies used by hospitalized children with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Journal of Nursing Scholarship. 2015 Mar;47(2):143-51.
Nascimento LC, Alvarenga WA, Caldeira S, Mica TM, Oliveira FC, Pan R, Santos TF, Carvalho EC, Vieira M. Spiritual care: The nurses’ experiences in the pediatric intensive care unit. Religions. 2016 Mar 9;7(3):27.
Reisi-Dehkordi N, Baratian H, Zargham-Boroujeni A. Challenges of children with cancer and their mothers: A qualitative research. Iranian journal of nursing and midwifery research. 2014 Jul;19(4):334.
Lyons E, Coyle A: Analysing qualitative data in psychology, Sage, 2016.
Elo S, Kyngäs H. The qualitative content analysis process. Journal of advanced nursing. 2008 Apr;62(1):107-15.
Krippendorff K. Reliability in content analysis: Some common misconceptions and recommendations. Human communication research. 2004 Jul;30(3):411-33.
Guba EG: Criteria for assessing the trustworthiness of naturalistic inquiries. Educational Technology Research and Development. 1981; 29:75-91.
Drutchas A, Anandarajah G. Spirituality and coping with chronic disease in pediatrics. Rhode Island Medical Journal. 2014 Mar 1;97(3):26.
Alijani Renani H, Hajinejad F, Idani E, Ravanipour M. Children with asthma and their families’ viewpoints on spiritual and psychological resources in adaptation with the disease. Journal of religion and health. 2014 Aug;53(4):1176-89.
Ito Y, Okuyama T, Ito Y, Kamei M, Nakaguchi T, Sugano K, Kubota Y, Sakamoto N, Saitoh S, Akechi T. Good death for children with cancer: a qualitative study. Japanese journal of clinical oncology. 2015 Apr 1;45(4):349-55.
Kreicbergs U, Valdimarsdóttir U, Onelöv E, Henter JI, Steineck G. Talking about death with children who have severe malignant disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2004 Sep 16;351(12):1175-86.
Alister Bull BD M. Spiritual needs of children with complex healthcare needs in hospital. Paediatric Nursing. 2007 Nov 1;19(9):34.
Cotton S, Grossoehme D, McGrady ME. Religious coping and the use of prayer in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatric blood & cancer. 2012 Feb;58(2):244-9.
Flavelle SC. Experience of an adolescent living with and dying of cancer. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 2011 Jan 3;165(1):28-32.
Reynolds N, Mrug S, Britton L, Guion K, Wolfe K, Gutierrez H. Spiritual coping predicts 5-year health outcomes in adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 2014 Sep 1;13(5):593-600.
Meireles CB, Novais MD, Cartaxo MA, de Matos Cassiano JJ, รง alves Pinheiro PG, Neto ML. Influence of spirituality in pediatric cancer management: a systematic review. International Archives of Medicine. 2015 Mar 5;8.
Petersen CL. Spiritual care of the child with cancer at the end of life: a concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2014 Jun;70(6):1243-53.
Kamper R, Van Cleve L, Savedra M. Children with advanced cancer: responses to a spiritual quality of life interview. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 2010 Oct;15(4):301-6.
Shahidi S, Shahabizadeh F, Mazaheri MA. Attachment to God and Perceived Childhood Attachment in an Iranian Sample: An Investigation of Granqvist‘s" Correspondence" and" Compensation" Hypotheses. International Journal of Psychology (IPA). 2010 Jan 10;4(1).
Holt CL, Wang MQ, Clark EM, Williams BR, Schulz E. Religious involvement and physical and emotional functioning among African Americans: The mediating role of religious support. Psychology & Health. 2013 Mar 1;28(3):267-83.
Taleghani F, Fathizadeh N, Naseri N. The lived experiences of parents of children diagnosed with cancer in Iran. European journal of cancer care. 2012 May;21(3):340-8.
Champagne E. Being a child, a spiritual child. International journal of children's spirituality. 2003 Apr 1;8(1):43-53.
Shelly JA: The Spiritual Needs of Children: A Guide for Nurses, Parents and Teachers, InterVarsity Press, 1982.
Wiemels J. Perspectives on the causes of childhood leukemia. Chemico-biological interactions. 2012 Apr 5;196(3):59-67.
Galek K, Flannelly KJ, Vane A, Galek RM. Assessing a patient's spiritual needs: a comprehensive instrument. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2005 Mar 1;19(2):62-9.
Mountain V. Four links between child theology and children’s spirituality. International Journal of Children's Spirituality. 2011 Aug 1;16(3):261-9.
Rossiter G. Children's play and spirituality: some issues for church school religious education at primary level. Religious Education Journal of Australia. 2012 Jan;28(2):10-5.
Steen S, Anderson B. Ages & stages of spiritual development. Journal of Christian Nursing. 1995 Apr 1;12(2):6-11.
McEwen M. Spiritual nursing care: state of the art. Holistic Nursing Practice. 2005 Jul 1;19(4):161-8.
- Abstract Viewed: 0 times
- PDF Downloaded: 0 times