Research/Original Articles

Effect of cinnamon supplementation on blood glucose and lipid levels in type2 diabetic patients

Hossein Khadem Haghighian, Alireza Farsad Naimi, Bahram Pourghassem Gargari, Akbar Ali-Asgharzadeh, Ali Nemati

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

   This study was planned to investigate the effects of supplementation of cinnamon on fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles among type2 diabetic patients. 60 subjects with type 2 diabetes from both sexes (30 males and 30 females) were allocated to the intervention and control groups (30 individuals per group). The doses of 1.5 g of cinnamon were equally administered orally in the form of cinnamon powder into 500 mg per capsule with breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 60 days. Control group received capsules of containing placebo. Blood samples were obtained on the beginning day of the experiment and at the end of 60 days. The fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles including total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and triglycerides of types 2 subjects were measured. Fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles in intervention group were significantly lower than control group (p<0.05). The average of fasting blood glucose levels, total cholesterol, cholesterol LDL and triglyceride levels were decreased after consumption of cinnamon powder, significantly(p<0.05). We observed no significant changes in fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles after consumption of placebo in control group. Conclusion: This study showed that consumption of cinnamon supplementation may be useful in control and decreasing of fasting blood glucose levels and lipid profiles among type 2 diabetes individuals.

Overweight and obese men are more prone to infertility-Myth or Fact?

Mohsen Najafi, Papanna Kavitha, Sreenivasa Gopalappa, Chaithra P. Thammaiah, Vineeth V. Sathidevi, Suttur S. Malini

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

To investigate the association of sub-fertility/ infertility with increased BMI in overweight and obese men and in control group in Karnataka, South India. In this pilot study 20 overweight and obese men, aged 25-45, and 10 normal-weighed men with proven fertility were included. Both groups were married. All cases and controls were evaluated for different semen parameters according to World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software, version 16.0. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Different infertile conditions are evident among overweight and obese individuals recruited for this study. Variations in the semen parameter are significant in obese men compared to controls but sperm function test does not show statistical significant values in overweight and obese men when compared with control group. In case of oligoasthenospermic subjects pH shows a significant increase (p=0.002) compared to controls. Also the levels of Fructose show a significant decline in both azoospermic (p<0.001) and oligoasthenosermic (p=0.002) groups when compared to control group. With reference to the data obtained from this pilot study we found that increased BMI in men affects the semen quality which ultimately results in decreased fertility rate in men.

A Comparative study on the chaperone-like activity of camel and bovine β-caseins

Mehran Miroliaei, Mozhgan Shirazi, Reza Yousefi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

     Molecular chaperones are characterized by a general behavior, arresting the exposed hydrophobic surfaces of denaturing substrate proteins. In the present study, the capacity of β-caseins (β-CN) from camel and bovine milk in suppression of thermal aggregation process of apo-yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) was assessed. Apo-I enzyme was prepared by removal of the structural zinc; while apo-II-protein was obtained by depleting conformational and catalytic zinc atoms. Fluorescence spectroscopy using ANS probe revealed greater hydrophobic surface in apo-II ADH. Considerable decrease in aggregation of the heat treated protein molecules was observed upon exposing to β-CNs (camel, bovine). Bovine β-CN afforded more adverse effects on thermal aggregation. A direct correlation between casein’s chaperone activity and structural stability of the substrate proteins was displayed. Moreover, an association between casein source and chaperone-like activity is suggested.

Job Satisfaction and its Contributing Factors in Female Faculty Members of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Samad Sajjadi, Navideh Nasiri Oskouei, Samira Ghandchi, Jandark Eghlidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

      Human resources can play a crucial role in enhancing output in different social establishments, including universities and educational systems, if they are satisfied with their job condition. Nowadays nearly half the resources belong to female employees in different organizations such as universities and educational settings. The attitude of this number of employees, including female faculty members of universities, is of special significance if the quality of work is to be enhanced in universities or other educational establishments. Bearing in mind this significance, the current study investigated job satisfaction among female faculty members at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU) in 2008, Tehran. The assumption was that the satisfaction level of faculty member from their job could significantly enhance the quality of education and clinical care at different colleges and teaching hospitals of the university. According to the results, university authorities and managers are expected to adopt due measures to improve faculty members' satisfaction scores if they are to enhance the quality of works to meet their educational ends. As a descriptive research, the study investigated job satisfaction among female faculty members at SBMU in 2008. Altogether a total of 116 subjects, selected randomly, were asked to complete the questionnaires. The Minnesota questionnaire and the Personal and Managerial questionnaire were used to measure the satisfaction level of the participant from their career. The researchers referred to different colleges and hospitals of SBMU to ask the participants to fill out the questionnaires. Then, following the data collection procedure and questionnaire analysis, the data were subjected to numerous statistical tests such as t-test, One- way ANOVA and Multiple comparisons tests. Job satisfaction among female faculty members at SBMU was low to some extent. The main factors accounting for a rather low satisfaction score was limited welfare facilities, low salaries and unpaid arrears, improper work environment and limited promotion opportunities.  Greater attention to these variables seemed to be essential if faculty members, attitude toward their job were to be enhanced. 

Effects of Citrus aurantifolia peel essential oil on serum cholesterol levels in Wistar rats

Parichehr Yaghmaie, Kazem Parivar, Minou Haftsavar

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

     The present study seeks to evaluate the effects of Citrus aurantifolia peel essential oil on serum triglyceride and cholesterols in Wistar rats. Thirty Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control, sham, and 3 experimental groups. The animals were treated in 2 phases: first, except for control group, which received normal saline, the rest of the groups were fed with a high cholesterol regimen to induce hyperlipidemia; then, the 3 experimental groups were treated with Citrus aurantifolia peel essential oil in 3 different doses: 25, 50, and 100 m lit/kg. Results: The sham group demonstrated a significant rise in mean serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL level in comparison with the control group (p<0.05) proving the effectiveness of hypercholesterolemia induction. The results of experimental groups treated with peel essential oil in 50 and 100 m lit/kg doses demonstrated a significant reduction in triglyceride, cholesterol, and LDL (p< 0.01). Application of the peel essential oil of Citrus aurantifolia showed significant decrease of cholesterol in rats in doses 50 and 100 m lit/kg. It is suggested that for cardiovascular risk reduction, the essential oil may be investigated for the same effects in human beings.

Bacteriorhodopsin and its Mutants allude a breakthrough impending to artificial retina construction and strategies for curing blindness

Pardis Saeedi, Jafar Mohammadian Moosaabadi, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Akram Eidi, Jalil Fallah Mehrabadi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

       Bacteriorhodopsin, a model system in nanobiotechnology, is a light-sensitive protein found in the archaean Halobacterium salinarum and a very identical protein to visual Rhodopsin. The modification of biological function of BR and its versatile properties is valuable for technical applications including the artificial retina. These photoactive elements of native and particular mutants of bacteriorhodopsin make protein films, used in artificial retinal implants, to treat some retinal diseases and disorders. The two major reasons of retinal photoreceptor cell deterioration are Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). As in vitro culture of Halobacterium is very difficult, and isolation procedure is much time consuming and usually inefficient, so genetic construction of protein is essential. Here, we have produced two types of bacteriorhodopsin, a native and a mutant BR (D85E) and studied their opto-electric responses with respect to wavelength and absorption properties. They are prerequisite for designing artificial retina (sensors) based on biomolecules. Therefore, the new promising technology soon will conceivably eradicate the blindness.

Cloning of Oct3/4 gene in embryonic stem cells

Mehrdad Hashemi, Maliheh Entezari, Leila Mohammadnejad, Faranak Jamshidian, Mehdi Shamsara, Masoud Soleimani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

      Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent, self-renewing cells. These cells can be used in applications such as cell therapy, drug discovery, disease modelling, and the study of cellular differentiation. In this experimental study embryonic stem cells cultured in the laboratory and were amplified. Total RNA was extracted from cells and converted to cDNA. The replication factor Oct3/4 gene was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the pTZ57R/T vector. Legated product had been transformed into susceptible bacteria and transformed bacteria were screened on a selective medium. Plasmids extracted from bacteria and enzyme digestion to confirm the sequencing was performed. Results of enzyme digestion were sequenced. Cloned gene can prepare a gene cassette to produce stem cells from somatic cell.

Pharmacy information systems in Tehran university hospitals and their relationship with pharmaceutical companies

Farkhondeh Asadi, Hamid Moghaddasi, Azamossadat Hosseini, Samad Sajjadi, Elham Maserat

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

    A pharmacy information system must retrieve process and update the information it obtains for safe and effective use of drugs. It is used to manage drug usage in the patient health care process and to communicate a large volume of information to pharmacy and pharmaceutical firms. Bearing in mind such issues, the current study adopted a descriptive method of research to investigate the pharmacy information systems in university hospitals and their relationship with pharmaceutical firms. The research data were collected through observation and interview based on a checklist and a questionnaire. Validity and reliability of the data gathering tools were specified through content validity and test re-test methods. The collected data were then analyzed, using a set of descriptive statistics. According to the results, pharmacy information systems in the hospitals under study were partially computerized. Databases for drugs, patients and prescriber databases, with different values of 50.1%, 21.9%, and 33.3% respectively, were not complete, as had been recorded in the pharmacy information system of the hospitals. The pharmacy information system is normally used to support therapeutic activities and the inventory, but such support had not been provided for 43.9 % of the hospitals. 32.2 % of the hospitals under study had not reported pharmaceutical information such as statistical data and drugs’ prices. Also, 27.3% of the pharmaceutical firms did not have any relationship with pharmacy information systems. Pharmaceutical companies had developed some relationship, on marketing issues, with hospital pharmacies. The findings were in favor of further therapeutic activities by pharmacy information systems, which could be achieved by improving relationship between hospitals and pharmaceutical firms, particularly in Tehran. This could help to manage drug consumption and supervision, after marketing, in order to eliminate adverse drug reactions and develop high quality pharmaceutical services. 

Short Communication

Comparison of Mono and Biphasic Culture Media in Isolating Bacteria from Blood and evaluation Bu-Ali Hospital Lab Quality

Simin Dokht Shoaei, Latif Gachkar, Mitra Rafizadeh, Noushafarin Saphadel, Yazdan-Ali Phaghani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 1 (2011), 24 April 2011

    Blood Culture is an important diagnostic method in infectious diseases and has positive results in 30%- 50% and even to 80% of cases due to sample volume. In Bu-Ali Hospital, Tehran, it decreases to 2-3%. In this survey, quality of hospital lab and difference between Mono and Biphasic culture media in isolating bacteria from blood of patients suggestive of sepsis were evaluated.106 (48 F + 58 M) newly admitted patients with impression of sepsis as SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome) (36˚C >OT>38.3˚C , tachycardia more than 100/min, leukocytosis  with shift  to left or leucopenia) with infectious source were sampled for culture (5ml blood 3 times in 1 Biphasic and 2 Monophasic media) in the infectious ward. One Monophasic Media in hospital lab and the two other (1 Monophasic + 1 Biphasic Media) in Reference Laboratory of Iran, Research Center were handled. Media were quality-controlled at beginning and in the middle of study by NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Lab Standard) with ATCC (American Type Culture Collection) samples. Sampling, transfer, and handling were all in standard conditions usually used in hospital. Results were compared by Fisher Exact Test. Clinical diagnosis were bacterial in 84 (79%), and nonbacterial in 22 (21%) patients at admission. 57 (54%) patients had not used antibiotics in the past 72 hours. In Monophasic Media of hospital lab 2 (1.9%) positive cultures (S. epidermidis) one with history of Erythromycin use were reported. In both Monophasic and Biphasic Media in reference lab 3 (2.8%) positive cultures (2 S.epidermidis, 1 E. coli) were reported equally, one with history of Erythromycin use. Growth Index in both Monophasic and Biphasic Media were standard in quality control. Qualities of Mono and Biphasic Media in growing bacteria were alike and Biphasic Media had no superiority to Monophasic Media in routine bacterial isolation. Positive culture in both labs had no significant statistical difference. So, negative results are not due to media and laboratorial fields, and it is needed to educate and evaluate two other fields: Sampling and Transferring. Also, we may have more positive cultures by increasing blood samples from 5 to 20 ml which can be compared in next studies.