Original Article (Forensic Medicine)

Lip Print Patterns Of Saudi Arabian Subjects Visiting A Dental School

Fazeena Karimalakuzhiyil Alikutty, Waheeb Sara S, Alahmadi Rahaf H, Alkhuzae Hassan Ahmad, Alqurashi Abdullah Mansoor, Irfan Anaum Naila, Majid I A

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, , , Page 34901

Background: Lip prints are creases on the vermilion border of the lips, formed due to the elevations and depressions on them. Lip print patterns are considered to be valuable biometric technique in forensic investigation. Globally, a number of studies have reported that establish lip-prints to be unique to an individual and can be a valuable source of DNA that can help in personal identification. Despite the usefulness and its assistance in solving the crime scene, lip print studies in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are very few. Therefore, we undertook this study to add more to the scanty existing information.

Aim:  1) To investigate the potential role of lip-prints in human identification. 2) To verify the potential for sex determination from lip print in Saudi Arabian individuals visiting the outpatient department of a private dental school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A total of 485 subjects were recruited from the screening clinic of a dental school in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The lip prints of eligible and consenting study subjects was recorded using red/brown lipstick on the white paper that was scanned and converted to digital image. The scanned images were viewed using Photoshop image editing software that inverted images to grayscale. The lip prints in the six study areas of the upper and lips were categorized according to Renaud’s classification. The frequency of each type of lip print was calculated as a percentage. Chi (χ²) test was used to establish the association between the print type and the gender of participant with the confidence level fixed at 95% and a P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The most predominant type of lip print in the study population was type J (upper lip=42.0% and lower lip= 26.31%) and no two individuals among the study subjects showed similarity in the six lip print areas examined. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between the gender and the lip print type.

Conclusion: Based on our results we conclude that: 1. The lip prints of Saudi Arabian subjects are unique to every individual 2. No statistically significant difference was established between the gender and the type of lip prints of the study subjects.

Age Estimation from Vertebral Osteophytes Using 3D MDCT Imaging

Fatma Nada Khalifa , Fatma Soliman Ali, Amany Mohamed Fahmy Hanon, Sara Mahmoud Kamel, Mai Moustafa Magdi

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, , , Page 37813

Background: Age estimation from skeletal measurements is an important step in forensic biological identification. In this study we attempted to benefit from the use of multi-detector computed tomography as an uprising satisfying metric technique. The main aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that osteophytes of the vertebral column are too specific for everyone to develop an age estimation formula from computed tomography images’ measurements. This study used a cross-sectional approach involving thoraco-lumbar multi-detector computed tomography scans from 100 adult volunteers of both sex ranging in age from 20 to 80 years divided into six age groups, and vertebral osteophytes were measured using a specific workstation producing three-dimensional virtual reality images. This involved the lower six thoracic and all lumbar vertebrae, which were scored for degree of osteophyte formation and then classified into six categories.

Results: Statistical analysis of the gathered data showed a statistically significant difference between different age groups and degree of osteophytosis with p value < 0.001, and correlation coefficients resulting from correlation between age and osteophytes’ scores are: 0.75, 0.81, 0.69 for a combination of the sexes, males, and females, respectively. Additionally, a reliable formula for age determination was achieved, regardless of sex y=29.831+ 9.767x; For males y=29.740+ 9.651x; For females y=29.967+ 9.859x (y= age, x= osteophyte index).

Conclusions: The degree of vertebral osteophytosis of an individual can be used as a reliable determinant tool for age identification.

Original Article (General Medicine)

Intrauterine Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Infusion Could Change The Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) Pattern In The Endometrial Secretion Of Women With Recurrent Implantation Failure: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Bita Pourkaveh, Jalil Pakravesh, Mehdi Shabani, Latif Gachkar, Hamid Nazarian, Marrefat Ghaffari Novin, Leila Nazari, Nariman Mosaffa

International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine, , , Page 38493


RIF is an extremely devastating condition for patients with infertility that has no universally accepted definition. Among therapeutic method used, intrauterine infusion of PRP improves chances of clinical pregnancy and live birth. This satisfactory evidence emphasizes on the investigation of the underlying mechanisms of PRP on cytokines and growth factor involving in embryo implantation. The aim of current study is to find the effect of intrauterine infusion of PRP on LIF level in the endometrial secretion of patients with RIF.

Material and Method:

In order to determine the effect of intrauterine infusion of PRP on LIF level in women with RIF, 20 RIF women undergoing ET cycle were recruited and divided into PRP group(n=11) and non-PRP group(n=9). All of these women underwent endometrial secretion aspiration two times. In PRP group endometrial secretion aspiration performed immediately before PRP infusion and immediately before ET, in non-PRP group 48 hrs Before ET and immediately before ET. The concentration of LIF was measured using LEGENplex ™ MultiAnalyteFlowAssay kit.


The concentration of LIF was significantly higher in PRP group compared to non-PRP group. Also, significant difference in the terms of clinical pregnancy rate has been found between PRP group and non-PRP group.


The findings of current trial suggest that intrauterine infusion of PRP might be a potential method to improve clinical pregnancy rates in women with RIF.

 In fact PRP have the potential to elevate the level of vital cytokine such as LIF involving in the embryo implantation pathway.