Gastrointestinal and liver adverse effects of anti-tumoral immune therapy: from recognition to treatment
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Anti-tumoral immune therapy consists of monoclonal antibodies that target intra-cellular immune checkpoints—which under normal circumstances, act as regulators of T-cell immunity. By serving as inhibitors of cellular checkpoints, monoclonal antibodies stimulate the immune system thus augmenting the body’s response against cancer. These immune-enhancers or stimulators have revolutionized the treatment of malignancy as they continue to show improvement in the overall survival of cancer patients. Currently, in the United States, six immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for the treatment of a variety of solid tumors (1). As these checkpoint inhibitors are relatively new, only a scant amount of literature is available regarding both their adverse effects and management thereof. In addition, as newer antibodies are being developed, and expected to be enlisted among the armamentarium of cancer chemotherapeutic agents—the need to understand their toxicity and adverse effects is of paramount importance. Herein, we review some of the gastrointestinal and liver sequelea secondary to the usage of immunotherapeutic checkpoint inhibitor agents in cancer chemotherapy, as well as present the diagnosis and recommended treatment strategies for their adverse effects.
Keywords: Anti-tumoral immune therapy, Treatment, Gastrointestinal and liver diseases.
(Please cite as: Weissman S, Saleem S, Al-Dulaimi D. Gastrointestinal and Liver adverse effects of anti-tumoral immune therapy: from recognition to treatment. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2021;14(3):195-199).