Faecal Microbiota Transplantation: Looking beyond Clostridium difficile infection at Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota are known to play paramount role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Innovative sequencing methods have radically expanded our ability to analyze the intestinal microbiome. However, alterations of the GI microbiome in IBD have not yet been fully evaluated. Irregular colonization of the gut has been implicated in chronic intestinal inflammation. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a procedure which aims to restore microbial disturbances to the individual’s gut microbiome. The success of FMT in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has inspired studies to explore transplantation in other conditions such as IBD. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), the two principal manifestations of IBD, are emerging as a worldwide epidemic and are multifactorial in aetiology. There have been various case series in the past looking at the use of FMT in IBD, with a large number of them focusing on UC; however, two new randomized controlled trials shed up-to-date light on the complex interactions between the GI microbiome and patients. Regardless of these new studies, much more remains unknown about the efficacy and safety profile of FMT in IBD, ultimately casting a shadow over its use as a therapeutic intervention in conditions other than CDI. Further researches are necessary to fully evaluate the role of FMT as a management option in IBD. In this review, we discuss and summarize the functions of FMT in IBD, and the relationship between IBD and the GI microbial variations present.
Keywords: Inflammatory bowel disease, Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, Faecal microbiota transplantation.
(Please cite as: Patel K, Patel A, Hawes D, Shah J, Shah K. Faecal microbiota transplantation: looking beyond clostridium difficile infection at inflammatory bowel disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018;11(1):1-8).