Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, a heterogenous, underestimated and under-diagnosed E. coli pathotype in Iran
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Vol. 6 No. 2 (2013),
Page Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2013;6(2):71-79
The main features of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) pathogenesis include attachment of bacteria to the intestinal mucosa, production of various toxins and cytotoxins, and stimulation of mucosal inflammation. ‘Virulence’ genes encode these features. Comparison of different EAEC isolates has shown that the virulence gene content of these isolates varies considerably. The heterogeneity of EAEC strains was concluded from the results obtained from the volunteer as well as other studies. Although the underlying mechanism behind the apparent increase in O104:H4 virulence is not known, several bacterial factors have been implicated. In this review, the known virulence factors involved in pathogenesis of EAEC pathotype are summarized.