An algorithmic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antithrombotic agents
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench,
Gastrointestinal bleeding is an overwhelming complication of patients taking antithrombotic agents. These drugs pose a challenge to physicians in the management of bleeding to establish hemostasis without putting these patients at a higher risk for thromboembolism. This study aims to propose an algorithmic approach to four major groups of patients receiving antithrombotic agents (single antiplatelet agents, dual antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants and direct oral anticoagulants) to decide when and how these drugs should be held or restarted to offset between the risk of re-bleeding and thromboembolism. Four case-based algorithms are proposed in this article based on some relevant articles. Having designed four case-based algorithms, we are hoping to guide physicians who face a dilemma on the management of patients receiving antithrombotics when gastrointestinal bleeding occurs. Patients using antithrombotics referred for gastrointestinal bleeding were stratified into four groups based on the medication which is used as an antithrombotic agent and four algorithms were designed which are presented here. We have made an attempt to have a stepwise approach to four cases relevant to the study and have an evaluation on the management of their antithrombotic agents during an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding. It is widely accepted that antithrombotic agents should be restarted as soon as possible after the establishment of hemostasis in a patient taking antithrombotics referring for gastrointestinal bleeding. The time for resuming these drugs is different based on the severity of bleeding, the probability of thromboembolic events, and the nature of the antithrombotic medication which is used by the patient.
Keywords: Algorithms, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Thromboembolic events, Antithrombotic agents.
(Please cite as: Sadeghi A, Zali MR, Mohaghegh Shalmani H, Ketabi Moghadam P, Rajabnia Chenari M, Karimi MA, et al. An algorithmic approach to gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving antithrombotic agents. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2020;13(Suppl.1):S8-S17).
- Algorithms, Gastrointestinal bleeding; Thromboembolic events; Antithrombotic agents
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