Research Article

Implementation of Watson's Theory in a Patient with Breast Cancer: A Case Study

Mohsen Adib-Hajbaghery, Shahnaz Bolandianbafghi, Zohreh Nabizadehgharghozar

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 1-7

Introduction: Patients who are suffering from breast cancer have numerous problems. Watson's Theory of Human Caring seems to be proper in caring for these patients. This theory stresses the humanistic aspects of nursing as they interfere with scientific knowledge and nursing practice. This study implemented Watson's theory in preparing a Persian woman with breast cancer to accept the treatment process. Methods: In this case study, the patient was selected from the patients referring to a hospital in a city in Iran. Open-ended interview and observation were used to collect the required data. The process of the study was done in five stages. Results: After implementation of Watson's theory in a five-step interview, the patient's disappointment and despair were reduced and the patient agreed to continue the treatment process. Conclusions: Watson's theory of caring is likely to bring love and hope back to patients with breast cancer in bad physical and mental conditions. By applying 10 caring factors of this theory, a humanitarian relationship is established with the patient; this relationship is based upon love and hope. The patient is able to express her feelings and continue the treatment process by trusting God, applying her spirituality, and gaining supports from family and friends.

Evaluation of Quality of Life in Women with Abortion Experience in Tehran 2015 - 2016

Narjes Feizollahi, Fatemeh Nahidi, Manije Sereshti, Maliheh Nasiri, Asieh Azadpour Motlagh

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 8-15

Introduction: Abortion as a traumatic event in life can have consequences on women's Individual-social quality of life. This study aimed to determine the quality of life of women with an abortion experience. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study in 2016, Convenience sampling was applied to select 165 women with a history of abortion from health centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University. A demographic, fertility, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation) and Pearson’s correlation tests were administered to analyze the data by SPSS 20. Results: The mean score of quality of life in research units was 78,43, mean score of quality of life dimensions, physical restraint 75.23, emotional limit 77.40, vitality 70,90 , emotional health 49.38, Social score 72.03, pain 73.08 and health was 79.61, the mean score of each dimension was above average, respectively. There was a Significant relationship between age (p = 0.003), women's education (p = 0.001), family income (p = 0.001), number of abortion/previous absences (p = 0.002), gestational age at the time of abortion (p = 0.005), visualization of the fetus in sonography (p = 0.000), pregnancy request (p = 0.003), history of infertility (p = 0.001), abortion method (p = 0.002) and fetus heart hearing (p = 0.005) with quality of life. Conclusions: Given the impact of abortion on women's quality of life and the importance of family and community health, reproductive health policy should be aimed at reducing the consequences of abortion and improving the quality of life.

Evaluation of Group Consulting on Pregnancy Anxiety: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Marjaneh Dayhimi, Nourossadat Kariman, Jamal Shams, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 16-21

Introduction: Anxiety is a disorder of mental health in pregnant women reported by 20 percent of health care providers and is accompanied by adverse pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to determine the effect of obstetric counseling on the anxiety of pregnant women. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind controlled trial, 90 pregnant women attending to Sheibani Health Care Center in Tehran aging from 18 to 35 years old and with a gestational age of 8 to 18 weeks were evaluated first pregnancy. They were randomly assigned to counseling (group counseling with routine perinatal care) and control (only routine perinatal care) groups. The group counseling was designed according to different needs of pregnancy for five sessions in five weeks (a duration of 60 to 90 minutes for each session). The questionnaires of demographic information, Beck Depression, and Spielberg spiel Berger State-trait anxiety were used. The data analysis was performed by SPSS software version 13 using parametric and non-parametric tests. Results: According to the results, there was a significant difference between post-intervention scores in state anxiety (P = 0.014); however, there was no significant difference in trait anxiety (P = 0.19). Also, the changes in trait anxiety were more in the consoling group compared with the control group (P = 0.002), which is also seen for the state anxiety group (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: It is concluded from this study that group counseling is effective in the reduction of state anxiety and trait anxiety in pregnant women.

Interleukin-6 in Spontaneous and Induced Vaginal Birth and Neonatal Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study

Shahnaz Torkzahrani, Zahra Sahebazzamani, Soodeh Shahsavari, Tahereh Behroozi Lak

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 22-29

Introduction: The detailed mechanisms fundamentally the onset of spontaneous labor at term remain obscure. Delayed labor means slower progress of the birth process and is associated with childbirth problems and negative birth feelings, resulting in subsequent pregnancy and labor. Inflammatory mechanisms are thought to play a vital role in the physiology of parturition and labor in pre-term and spontaneous term birth. Studies indicated that the mode of birth and labor change interleukin-6 concentrations in maternal and fetal sections. The immunobiological role of inflammatory cytokines in parturition and the onset of spontaneous labor at term, especially without exogenic motivation, remain unspecified yet. The specific role of Interleukin - 6 (IL - 6) in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, myometrium contractions, cervix ripening, and finally, its role in the process of labor is reported in studies. According to the changes in the physiology of normal birth in induced labor, this study aimed to compare the mean level of IL-6 in pregnancies terminated by selective induction or spontaneous vaginal birth and neonatal outcome. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on two groups of 40 women with spontaneous and induced birth. All pregnancies were term without clinical or obstetric complications. The enzyme-connected immunosorbent assay measured the level of IL - 6 in the umbilical cord. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS 22 software. Results: The mean level of IL-6 in the umbilical cord was not significantly different in spontaneous (250.20 ± 39.36 pg./ml) and induced labor (240.97 ± 39.06 pg./ml) (P = 0.847). In the spontaneous birth group, the first and fifth minute Apgar scores were higher than the induced labor group (P = 0.021). None of the infants required resuscitation or NICU hospitalization in the neonatal unit. Approximately 97.5% of infants were breastfed in the induced birth group. Only one of the newborns in the induced birth group had jaundice and underwent phototherapy for 8 hours at home. In this study, there was found no association between IL - 6 and pregnancy/infant variables. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the birth method (induced and spontaneous) had no effect on the level of IL-6 in the umbilical cord blood, but the birth method had just a significant effect on the Apgar score. Induction of labor is associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study investigated interleukin-6 in cord blood in term newborns depending on the mode of delivery and labor. Delayed labor means slower progress of the birth process and is associated with childbirth problems and negative birth feelings, which can have consequences on subsequent pregnancy and labor. We determined whether normal spontaneous birth and induced birth at term was associated with poor newborns outcomes. Current study was a different view helping future studies to investigate other aspects of post term pregnancy and supporting physiological parturition

Awareness Level of Operating Room Nurses of Their Professional Tasks

Sedigheh Hannani, Nasrin Kamali, Zahra Kashaninia, Agha Fatemeh Hosseini, Abed Ebrahimi, Behzad Gholam Veisi, Mostafa Sadeghi

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 30-35

Introduction: The awareness of the duties and responsibilities of operating rooms nurses is considered as a basis for systems monitoring and quality evaluation. Operating room nurses are supposed to be aware of their professional standards and achieve their functions following professional standards. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out based on the census and sampling with 143 operating room nurses working in nine training hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. The research instrument was a researcher-made questionnaire, and the reliability was assessed through Cronbach's alpha. Also, both face and content validity of the questionnaire have been checked by faculty members. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 19 with descriptive statistics, Chi-square test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: In terms of preoperative responsibilities, 25.7%, 35.9%, and 38.3% of operating room nurses experienced the awareness levels of high, moderate, and weak, respectively. The awareness levels for 20.4%, 34.7%, and 44.9% of operating room nurses were evaluated as high, moderate, and weak, respectively. They were considering the post-operative responsibilities of operating room nurses, 32.3%, 32.3%, and 35.3% of operating room nurses who experienced the awareness levels of high, moderate, and weak, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicated that a vast majority of operating room nurses experienced a high level of awareness with respect to their responsibilities before, during, and after the operation. Nurses’ awareness of their mission, and management and official plans for promoting deficiencies in this regard could help promote health. Contextualized education on improving the quality of nursing services should be considered as a part of the training for OR nurses and suggested to investigate the awareness level of nurses and other treatment staff about the standards of their responsibilities in diverse sectors to perform suitable planning of tasks.

Knowledge of Type II Diabetic Patients About Their Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mona Zahedi, Fazel Dehvan, Ahmed N. Albatineh, Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 36-43

Introduction: Knowledge is the critical component to counter the harmful side-effects of chronic diseases. Diabetic patients can manage their disease based on their diabetes knowledge and following good self-care behavior. Various studies about patients' knowledge of diabetes show different results. The purpose of this study is to estimate the overall knowledge score of Iranian patients about diabetes. Methods: In the current study, ten papers published by September 2018 were identified without time limitation. A literature search for the papers was conducted using the keywords: Iran, diabetes, knowledge, and their combinations. The necessary data were extracted and analyzed through meta-analysis using the random-effects model. The I2 statistic was used to measure the heterogeneity among the studies. The data were analyzed using Stata software (Version 11). Results: The pooled estimate of the knowledge score of type II diabetes patients about their diabetes was 64% (95% CI: 52%-76%). According to the meta-regression results, there was no relationship between the knowledge score with age (P = 0.487), duration of disease (P = 0.406), and the sample size (P = 0.146). The patients' knowledge score had experienced an uptrend between 2004 and 2017, the years at which the oldest and the most recent articles were published (P = 0.06). Conclusions: Iranian patients' knowledge about their diabetes was at an average level. Education, along with medication, can significantly reduce short and long-term complications of diabetes.

The Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Dysfunctional Attitudes Toward Mate Selection and Emotional Adjustment in Female Students

Zahra Silabkhori, Mohsen Kachooei

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 44-50

Introduction: Emotional adjustment and people's attitudes about spouse selection are essential factors that can make a marriage successful or failed. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of schema therapy on dysfunctional attitudes toward mate selection and emotional adjustment in female students. Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest design with a control group. Thirty female students were assigned into two experimental and control groups (n = 15 in each group). The experimental group received eight sessions of 90 minutes under schema therapy interventions. For data collection, Attitudes about Romance and Mate Selection Scale (ARMSS) and Emotional Adjustment Measure (EAM) were used. Data were analyzed using an analysis covariance test. Results: Results of covariance analysis showed a significant improvement in the number of dysfunctional attitudes toward the mate selection (P < 0.01) and emotional adjustment (P < 0.01) at the post-test. It can be stated that there are significant changes between the experimental and control groups in the Posttest. Conclusions: Findings showed that schema therapy improves dysfunctional attitudes toward mate selection and emotional adjustment in female students. These interventions can be used to increase people's preparation to start a marriage and to develop useful attitudes and expectations.

The Correlation Between the Emotional Intelligence and Attitude Toward Educational Field and Job Prospects in Midwifery Students of Tehran City in 2018

Mahta Abbasi Fashami, Nourossadat Kariman, Elham Ahmad Pourkeivani, Fatameh Sadat Rahnemaie, Farzaneh Rashidi Fakari, Malihe Nasiri

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 29 No. 1 (2020), 15 Dey 2020, Page 51-56

Introduction: Students' attitudes toward their educational field and job prospects are significantly necessary for their educational system. Midwifery is one of the essential fields in health, and students of this field are the pillars of protecting health in the future. This research aims at the determination of the relationship between emotional intelligence and attitude toward the educational field and job prospects in Midwifery students. Methods: This research was conducted as descriptive-sectional research with 251 midwifery bachelor students in the universities of medical sciences in Tehran city in 2018. The sampling method includes three inventories of demographic information, attitude toward the educational field, job prospects, and emotional intelligence. Statistical data were analyzed using SPSS (vr.16) software. Results: 57.8% and 62.9% of people neither agree nor disagree about the midwifery field and job prospects of this field, respectively. The positive correlation was observed between emotional intelligence and self-management with the educational field and job prospects. There was a negative relationship between the educational years of the spouse with an attitude toward the educational field. The negative relationship was observed between the educational year, mean high school average, and the mark of attitude toward the job prospects. Conclusions: Although most midwifery students are interested in this field and job, some wrong decisions and policy-makings have disappointed them. It is essential to change policies and make significant decisions according to the significant role of the midwife in the health and necessity of motivation in the present and future performance of students.