Research Article-Nursing

Effects of communication skills educational intervention of Mothers of

Ashraf Mohamadi, Zahra Hajiamini, Abbas Ebadi, Ali Fathi-Ashtiani, Matin Aliasgari

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 1-10

 Anxiety disorders are one of the most common mental disorders in children. In regard with

the importance effect of appropriate communication among parents specially mothers and children, on

 mental health of children, this study investigated the effects of communication skills training for mothers on

 anxiety levels of school students in Tehran.

 Methods and Material:

 In a quasi-experimental study, 114 students in first grade class, in an area in Tehran

and their mothers were included. Before the intervention , children's anxiety was assessed by using the


School Anxiety Scale –Teacher report (SAS-TR (SAS-TR), and mothers' communication skills was


measured by Queendom communication skills questionnaire. The mothers of the children in intervention


group were provided a communication skills education program. Mothers of the children in control group


were also provided with communication skills education after completion of the study. Two month after the

 educational intervention mothers' communicational skills and their children's anxiety in two groups were

 assessed by two questionnaires and compared with pre intervention stage. Data were analyzed by SPSS

 statistical software.


 Wilcoxon statistical test showed a significant decrease in anxiety scores of children of mothers of

intervention group (p<0.05), while no significant difference was found between pre and post educational


intervention anxiety scores in control group. Mean scores of mothers' communicational skills was (114.±


8/9) before Intervention which significantly increased after educational program (p<0.05).




Anxiety of students is in primary school has a high incidence, diagnosis and early treatment

could prevent future complications. According to this study findings , communication skills training for

 mothers is an effective way to reduce the anxiety students.


 Anxiety, student, teacher, School anxiety scale - teacher report (SAS-TR), communication skills training

Understanding exercise behavior among Tehran adolescent girls according

Hadiseh Khaniyan, Meimanat Hosseini, Forozan Atashzadeh Shorideh, Samira Chaibakhsh

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 11-20

Abstract -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Background and aim:


decline of exercise during adolescence especially in adolescent girls is documented.

Nevertheless, there is relatively little understanding about exercise behavior and it's mechanisms during


adolescence. The purpose of this study is understanding exercise behavior among Tehran adolescent girls


according to Stage of Change Model.




This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that was conducted on 430 adolescent girls ranged in

age from 14-17 years that were selected from Tehran daily public and private high school by multi stage


sampling method. 2 questionnaires: demographics questionnaire and Stage of Exercise Change Questionnaire


(SECQ) and 3 scales: Exercise Benefits/ Barriers Scale (EBBS), Self efficacy scale and Process of change


scale were used for data collection and some of which was validated and made reliable. ANOVA


accompanied by Tukey's post hoc test were used for data analysis.




30% of Tehran adolescent girls were in pre - contemplation stage. Totally 73.8% of samples were in

pre- action stages (pre – contemplation, contemplation, preparation) and they were sedentary. All of the stage


of change model's constructs differed from pre - contemplation stage through maintenance stage significantly


(p< 0.001). Adolescent girls in pre- contemplation scored the lowest and those in maintenance stage scored


highest on self-efficacy, perceived benefits and process of change and reversed on perceived barriers.




Results of recent study supported the use of stage of change model in understanding exercise

behavior among adolescent girls and showed that the stage of change model can serve as a useful frame work


to understand adolescent girl exercise behavior so using the stage of change model is recommended in


understanding and promoting exercise behavior among adolescent girls.




Stage of Change Model, exercise behavior, adolescents, girls

Cancer-related fatigue and its association with health-related quality of

Shirin Hasanvand, Tahereh Ashktorab, Zohreh Jafari, Nayereh Salmani, Zeinab Safariyan

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 21-30


Background and aim:

 Fatigue is one of the most common complications and symptoms of cancer. It affects

on people's ability and quality of life and functional status. This study examined Cancer-related fatigue and

 relationship with health-related quality of life and functional status of cancer patients.

 Materials and Methods:

In this corelational descriptive study, 57 cancer patients were selected by

consecutive sampling. Fatigue, quality of life and functional status of patients measured by the Fatigue

 Severity Scale (FSS), FACT–G and Karnofsky Performance Scale. Validity and reliability of questionnaires

 were investigated by content validity and alpha chronbach. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics

 and Pearson correlation coefficient, T test, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and ANOVA.



The mean fatigue score of samples was 4/36. The overall mean of QoL was 66 (14/65) and 5/89% of

samples had moderate quality of life. Results of functional status showed that most patients (61.4%) were able


to perform normal activity and functional status scores range between 20 to 100.There was significant and


inversely statistical differences between fatigue and quality of life. (r = - 0/69, p <0/000). Functional status

 was significantly and inversely correlated with fatigue (r = - 0 / 58, p <0/000).


 cancer patients experienced moderate fatigue. Considering relationship between fatigue with

quality of life and functional status, it's necessary to be considered action to reduction of fatigue and therefore

 improve of quality of life and functional status of cancer patients.


 Health-related quality of life, fatigue, cancer, cancer, functional status




Relationship between maternal serum C - reactive protein

zahra Ahi, norosadat Kariman, saleh Zahedi, nezhat Shakeri

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 31-38


Abstract Background:

 It is hypothesized that GDM may be a systemic inflammation mediated by cytokine.

This case-control study was designed to investigate correlation between C-reactive protein (CRP) and

 gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).


 In a case-control study, a convenient sample of 60 pregnant women with GDM (case group) and

120 pregnant women without GDM (control group) who attended to GDM and prenatal clinics and women


clinics of Ayatollah Taleghani and Mahdiyeh Hospitals were included. Serum level of CRP measured by


qualitative and quantitative methods was compared in two groups. Demographic information and


reproductive history were obtained by interview. Both of the group was matched in age, parity, first trimester

 body mass index and DMF index. Data were analyzed by descriptive and analytic statistics.


 : Demographic characteristics and reproductive histories were similar in two groups. Significantly

different was between two groups in serum level of qualitative CRP (p<0/0005) and serum level of

 quantitative CRP (P<0/0005). CRP was strongly associated wish Glucose Challenge Test (GCT) (p<0/0005).


 : The results suggest that there is correlation between C-reactive protein and gestational diabetes

mellitus, and inflammation may play an important role in the development of gestational diabetes mellitus and

 CRP can act as the risk predictor of GDM. More studies are needed to verify these results.

 Key words:

 Gestational Diabetes, C - reactive protein, Pregnancy



Compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women attending public

ashraf Direkvand-Moghadam, ali Delpisheh, azadeh Direkvand-Moghadam

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 39-44

Background and aim: Infertile women experience many problems in their life. Evaluation the quality of life
in infertile makes the healthcare provider aware of their needs for providing quality care. The aim of present
study was to compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women attending public and private centers I
Methods and material : In a cross - sectional study , quality of life of a group of infertile and fertile
women attending to public and private health care centers of Ilam in 2013 was compared. Simple random
sampling method was used. Inclusion criteria consisted of: being married, age between 15-49 years , nonpregnant
and non-lactating. Postmenopausal women with known physical and mental illness, or a history of
them were excluded. Data were collected by the quality of life questionnaires SF-36 and demographic
questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, chi-square test and t-test.
Results: 450 women participated in the present study . Mean age in women of fertile group was 32.17± 3.09
years and in infertile women 35.93± 8.07, respectively. The mean scores for physical functioning, role
limitations due to physical problems, general health, vitality, social functioning, role limitations due to
emotional problems and mental health were significantly different in fertile and infertile women. But the
physical pain scores were not significantly different in fertile and infertile women.
Conclusion: The physical and mental dimensions of quality of life scores was lower in infertile women in
comparison to fertile women group . Therefore it is important to provide support and education to improve
quality of life in infertile women.
Key words: Infertility, quality of life, SF-36

Opinions of Educational Experts in Shahid Beheshti University of

Zhila Abed Saeedi, Houman Manoochehri, Azam Moslemi

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 45-52

Background and aim: Education and clinical application of basic science is important in nursing education ,
nurse educators have reported problems with the teaching and learning of bioscience. This study aimed to
explore educational expert’s opinions regarding the basic science courses offer.
Materials and methods: This descriptive study was performed on 35 educational experts at Faculty of
Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Data were collected with a semistructured
questionnaire. Face and content validity were checked. The reliability of the questionnaire was
determined using the Cronbach’s Alpha test. Data were analyzed by SPSS(version 18) and descriptive
Findings: 50.0 percent of educational experts agreed with the proportion of basic science courses for nursing
course objectives. Also, they agreed with time extension for anatomy and physiology courses, especially these
courses offer in several semesters and relevant to clinical nursing courses.
Conclusion: According to the results, it seems that curriculum planners should investigate about the clinical
application of basic science courses in nursing program as a priority, and fundamental reform needs to
consider basic science courses offer, especially anatomy and physiology, as well.
Keywords: Curriculum planning, Educational Experts, Nursing education, Basic science courses

Assessment of burnout rate and related factors in selected wards

marzieh Sadeghzadeh Nasseri, tahereh Ashktorab, foroozan AtashzadehShoredeh, hamid Alavi Majd

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 53-60

Background and Aims: Nurses experience numerous stresses in their work which may cause burnout .The
goal of present study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with burnout in nurses working
in selected departments of teaching hospitals of University of Medical Sciences and Health Services in Fasa
and Jahrom cities.
Materials and Methods: In this cross – sectional study,120 nurses working in teaching hospitals Fasa and
Jahrom cities were included. Data were collected by a questionnaire which consisted a demographic
information section , the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) and a list factors related to burnout. Internal
consistency of the questionnaires were obtained by calculating cronbach alpha which was = 0.7 and
=0.76 for "Copenhagen Burnout Inventory" and "related factors with burnout questionnaire " respectively
.Test –re test reliability was r=0. 89 and r=0.70 for "Copenhagen Burnout Inventory" and "related factors with
burnout questionnaire " respectively. Data was analyzed with SPSS 17 software .
Finding: The results showed that the mean scores was for personal-related burnout 52.94 ± 18.35% ,workrelated
burnout 54.14 ± 18.64%, the client-related burnout 41.91 ± 19.91 percent. According to the
classification made, burnout in the area of personal and work-related burnout among nurses was high level
and within client-related burnout was moderate. This study showed that the economic factor was the less
important factor for burnout , and the care related factors had the most significant association with burnout
in study units.
Conclusion: High levels of burnout in this study indicate the need for more attention from managers and
resolving the causes of burnout in nurses.
Keywords: Burnout, Related factors, Nurse

Developmental delay and related factors

Farin Soleimani, Firozeh Sajedi, Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

Advances in Nursing & Midwifery, Vol. 24 No. 85 (2015), 2 Tir 2015, Page 61-70

Background & objective: The survival rates of high-risk infant have been improved as a result of advances
in medical knowledge, but future development of these children is becoming a matter of concern. After
infection and trauma, developmental and behavioral problems are the most common problems in pediatrics. A
range of factors are involved in behavior and development problems. Given the importance and prevalence of
developmental disorders, the lack of detailed information on risk factors, this article aims to explore some
factors associated with developmental delay in children.
Method and Material : This review was performed by searching PubMed, Ovid, SID, Scopus, Magiran and
Science Direct databases using following key words: Child Development, Socioeconomic statue, Violence,
Social support, Psychological factors, Unhealthy behavior, Social Determinants. A total of 55 article were
included in this review .
Results: The main causes of developmental disabilities remain unknown. Development of children affected
by prenatal factors, psychological, social and biological factors, genetic, environmental factors and is dynamic
interaction Biological and Acquired factors.
Key words: Developmental delay- Risk factors - Socioeconomic risk factors -Biological risk Factors-environmental
risk factors