Applied Food Biotechnology 2022-10-01T12:54:57+00:00 Masoumeh Moslemi (PhD) Open Journal Systems <p>The "Applied Food Biotechnology (AFB)" as an international peer reviewed Quarterly open access journal, publishes articles on Biochemical and Bioprocess Engineering (for food production, fortification, safety, etc); Metabolic and Genetic Engineering in Food Science; Food Microbiology; Nanobiotechnology in Food Science and Technology; Biopolymers as Food Packaging Materials; Role of Microorganisms in Waste Treatment of Food Industries.</p> Lukanka, a Semi-Dried Fermented Traditional Bulgarian Sausage: Role of the Bacterial Cultures in its Technological, Safety and Beneficial Characteristics 2022-10-01T12:00:48+00:00 Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov Clarizza May Dioso Min-Tze Liong Tonka Vasileva Penka Moncheva Iskra Vitanova Ivanova Ilia Iliev <p><strong>Background</strong>: Production of different fermented meat products is a well-known practice done in different European countries since ancient times. Fermentation of primary materials and/or smoking and salting processes are part of the preservation processes and is important for the formation of final products which is inherent in South European countries. Originally, fermentation of meat products is intended for preservation and safe storage for long periods of time. However, nowadays, gastronomical properties of fermented meat products are essential in obtaining specific flavor, odor, color and structure of the sausages which consumers highly prefer. Emphasis is given on gastronomic characteristics, which results from the various combination of raw meat, specific spices and the natural microbiota or conducted fermentation processes by application of specific starter cultures. Seven bacterial genera (<em>Lactobacillus</em>, <em>Leuconostoc</em>, <em>Staphylococcus</em>, <em>Enterococcus</em>, <em>Lactococcus</em>, <em>Micrococcus</em> and <em>Streptococcus</em>) are commonly used as meat starter cultures. Complex fermentation processes that occur during the ripening of the fermented meat products are the results of the interaction between bacterial starter cultures, remaining enzymes in the muscle and fat tissue and available bacterial enzymes.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The present overview aims to provide information related to the characterization of the specific microbiota associated with <em>lukanka, </em>a naturally-fermented semi-dried Bulgarian sausage. What is the specificity of its fermentation processes; how do different starter and indigenous meat microbiota interfere to form specific final products; what is the role of starter and adjunct cultures in the safety of the products; how is the Bulgarian <em>lukanka </em>classified in the perspective of other Mediterranean dry fermented sausages? These are some of the questions that this review will discuss.</p> 2022-10-01T11:40:20+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Applied Food Biotechnology Biosynthesis of Nano-Calcite and Nano-Hydroxyapatite by the Probiotic Bacteria of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans 2022-10-01T12:23:16+00:00 Sabere Nouri Rasoul Roghanian Giti Emtiazi Rasoul Shafiei <p><strong>Background and objective</strong>: In recent years, the green synthesis of nanomaterials has received more attention than chemical synthesis due to its eco-friendly and compatibility. <strong>Material and methods</strong>: In this study&nbsp;<em>Bacillus subtilis</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Bacillus coagulans</em>, two potential probiotics, were used and grown&nbsp;<em>Bacillus</em>&nbsp;in medium culture containing insoluble calcium phosphate produced nano-hydroxyapatite and nano-calcite. The nano-hydroxyapatite was purified from nano-calcite by heat treatment and washing with a 200 nm filter. The structures, characteristics, and elemental analysis of nano-sized material were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and X-ray fluorescence. <strong>Results</strong>: The results showed that hydroxyapatite is made only in a medium containing insoluble calcium phosphate sublimated with urea which is induced phosphatase and urease. Here, for the first time, the braided bacterial nano-hydroxyapatite similar to the bone structure was made in the medium, which caused the production of urease and phosphatase (Maximum 99 U/L) enzymes, and the particle size was less than 100 nm. The ratio of calcium to phosphorus in crude hydroxyapatite and calcite crystal particles made by&nbsp;<em>B. coagulans</em>&nbsp;was 2.9, however, this ratio for pure hydroxyapatite was 1.7. <strong>Conclusion</strong>: Since the particles are made by antibacterial probiotics, the biological production of these particles makes them a suitable candidate to be used in food, toothpaste, and sanitation products. Braided hydroxyapatite can substitute the needle-like type of food additives for infants and elders due to its safety.</p> 2022-10-01T12:18:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Applied Food Biotechnology Optimization of Gamma Aminobutyric Acid Production from Various Protein Hydrolysates by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum MCM4 2022-10-01T12:54:57+00:00 Ali Moayedi Zahra Zareie Forough Yaghoubi Morteza Khomeiri <p><strong>Background and Objective:</strong> Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid with various physiological properties that is used as synthetic drugs for curing anxiety, acute stress, and hypertension. In the recent years, producing the GABA-enriched foods and supplements via biological methods has gained much attention.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>In this study, at first, one factor at a time (OFAT) approach was used to study the effect of various kinds of protein hydrolysates (soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentration (WPC) and casein) at different concentrations, fermentation time (24 to 72h) and inoculum size (1, 3, and 5% v/v) on GABA synthesis. Then, the most effective parameters i.e., soy protein hydrolysate (SPH) concentration, inoculum size, and fermentation time were further employed by central composite design (CCD)-based response surface methodology (RSM) for GABA synthesis by <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em> MCM4.</p> <p><strong>Results and Conclusion:</strong> Among different protein hydrolysates, SPH was found to be more suitable for GABA synthesis. Moreover, higher GABA content was obtained when soy protein with extended enzymatic hydrolysis (SPH6) was used as the substrate. The polynomial mathematic model could predict the GABA synthesis successfully. The optimization using CCD indicated that the maximum GABA syntehsis yield (19.387 mg GABA/100 mL) was achieved under optimium conditions (fermentaion time of 28.99 h, inoculum size of 3.65% v/v, and SPH6 concnetration of 3.89% w/v). Overall,<em> L. plantarum</em> MCM4 was found to be a novel LAB species to produce GABA from inexpensive sources.</p> 2022-10-01T12:46:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Applied Food Biotechnology