General Considerations

  • Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their references and for correct text citation
  • Reference to a paper accepted but not yet published can be listed as ''In press" .Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as "unpublished observations" with written permission from the source.

Style and Format

Cite references in the text, tables or figure legends, by Arabic numerals in brackets consecutively in the order appeared for first time in manuscript manually.  Reference numbers in the text should be inserted immediately after punctuation (with no word spacing).

Where more than one reference is cited, these should be separated by a comma, for example: [2,3,4]

 For sequences of consecutive numbers, give the first and last number of the sequence separated by a hyphen, for example: [5-7]

References should follow the instructions offered byThe NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers and you can find sample references in webpage Details are in Citing Medicine(at Style files are available for use with bibliographic management software EndNote style file.  
Begin the 1.5 spacedreference list on a new page of manuscript document.

• Provide names of all authors in a reference.
• The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the style used for MEDLINE ( should be in italics and page numbers should be fully written out.


Standard journal article

Authors. Article Title. Journal Title. Date of publication: Volume (Issue): Location (pagination)

Eg1: Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.


Eg2: Trachtenberg F, Maserejian NN, Soncini JA, Hayes C, Tavares M. Does fluoride in compomers prevent future caries in children? J Dent Res. 2009 Mar;88(3):276-9. PubMed PMID: 19329464. registration number: NCT00065988.


Article not in English

Eg3: Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangstblantmedisin- ogjusstudenter. TidsskrNorLaegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.



Authors. Title. Edition. Secondary author. Place of Publication. Publisher, Date of Publication. Total number of pages.

Eg4: Belitz HD, Grosch W, Schieberle P. Food chemistry. 3rd rev. ed. Burghagen MM, translator. Berlin: Springer; 2004. 1070 p.


Dissertations and Theses

Authors. Title [Book type]. [Place of Publication]: Publisher;Date. Total number of pages.

Eg5: Kempner JL. Aching heads, making medicine: gender and legitimacy in headache [dissertation]. [Philadelphia]: University of Pennsylvania; 2004. 271 p.


Journals on the Internet

Authors. Article Title. Journal Title [Type of Medium]. Date of Publication [Date of Citation]: Volum Number(Issue Number): Location

Eg6: Kaul S, Diamond GA. Good enough: a primer on the analysis and interpretation of noninferiority trials. Ann Intrrn Med [Internet]. 2006 Jul 4 [cited 2007 Jan 4];145(1):62-9. Available from:



Inventors; Assignee. Title. Patent Country Document type Country Code, Patent Number. Date Issued.

Eg7: Myers K, Nguyen C, inventors; 3F Therapeutics, Inc., assignee. Prosthetic heart valve. United State patent US 6,911,043. 2005 Jun 28.


Forthcoming ("in press")

Authors. Article Title. Journal Title. Note.

Eg8: Polley DB, Cobos I, Merzenich MM, Rubenstein JL. Severe hearing loss in Dlx 1 mutant mice. Hear Res. Forthcoming 2006.


Databases/Retrieval Systems on the Internet

Authors: Title [Type of Medium]. Place of Publication: Publisher: Date of Publication [ Date of Updating/Revision; Date of citation]. Availability.

Eg9: Hooper JF. Psychiatry & the Law: Forensic Psychiatric Resource Page [Internet]. Tuscaloosa (AL): University of Alabama, Department of Psychiatry and Neurology ; 1999 Jan 1 [updated 2006 Jul 8; cited 2007 Feb 23]. Available from:


Conference proceedings:

Editors. Book Title. Conference Title; Date of Conference; Place of Conference; Place of Publication: Publisher; Date of Publication. Pagination.

Eg10:  Pacak K, Aguilera G, Sabban E, Kvetnansky R, editors. Stress: current neuroendocrine and genetic approaches. 8th Symposium on Catecholamines and Other Neurotransmitters in Stress; 2003 Jun 28 – Jul 3; Smolenice Castle, Slovakia. New York: New York Academy of Sciences; 2004 Jun. 590p.

Conference paper:

Authors of Paper. Title of Paper. Connective Phrase: Editor of Proceedings, Conference Title; Date of conference; Place of Conference

Eg11:  Bengtsson S, Solheim BG. Enforcement of data Protection, Privacy and Security in Medical Informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors.MEDINFO 92.Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sep 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland.