Articles can only be withdrawn before their acceptance.

Otherwise used during cases which contain errors or may have been accidentally submitted twice.

Occasionally, the articles may represent infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like.

Articles that include errors, or duplicates of or very similar to other published article(s) or are determined to violate the journals’ publishing ethics guidelines in the view of the editors may be withdrawn.

The withdrawal letter must include the corresponding author and the submitting individuals’ signature explaining their decision and reason for withdrawal.