Purpose: To determine the efficacy and safety of PCNL in patients with positive urine culture without an any other risk factors prior to surgery, and to define an optimal pre-operative antibiotic regimen for these patients.
Materials and methods: The study included 269 consecutive PCNL cases. These cases were divided into 2 groups according pre-operative urine culture results: sterile (group 1, n=166) and positive (group 2, n=103). Patients with risk factors linked to infection complications were excluded from study. All patients underwent PCNL in the prone position. In group 1, the antibiotic regimen included parenteral injection 30 minutes prior to operation and for 3 days after surgery. Group 2 was given antibiotics 24 hours before PCNL as well as 30 minutes before PCNL and then for 3 days following surgery. On the first day after the operation low dose CT and common blood count were performed on all patients to determine residuals, hematomas, blood loss, and inflammatory markers.
Results: Mean age, stone size, failed ESWL, and prior nephrostomy tube insertion were higher in group 2. Although rate of pre-stented patients was equal in groups. No significant differences were observed between group 1 and 2 in regard to operative time (74,3±26,9 vs 70,2±26,5 min, P=.52), length of stay (3,9±1,2 vs 3,8±1,6 days, P=.24), SIRS (6,0% vs 7,8% patients, P=.07), and leukocyte levels exceeding 10*10*9 (77 (46,4%) vs 49 (47,6%) P=.11). Moreover, there was no sepsis or hemotransfusion in either group. Stone-free rates were also similar (78,9% vs 77,7%, P=.35).
Conclusion: 24-hours continuous antibiotic administration before the operation (paying respect to specific resistance bacterial features) can be considered as alternative to 1-week treatment and allow to perform PCNL with sufficient safety in selected patients. Infected urine is not an independent risk factor of post-operative infections complications after PCNL in low risk patients with kidney stones.
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