• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Concealed Penis after Circumcision: Is It Beneficial in Lowering Uropathogenic Colonization in Penile Skin and Preventing Recurrence of Febrile Urinary Tract Infections?

Mete Özkidik, Onur Telli, Nurullah Hamidi, Uygar Bagci, Adil Hüseyinov, Aytaç Kayis, Anar Ibrahimov, Tarkan Soygür, Berk Burgu



Purpose:  To  discuss  whether  concealed  penis  after  circumcision  lowers  perimeatal  urethral  and  glanular  sulcus  uropathogenic  bacterial  colonization  in  healthy  boys  with  no  urinary  tract  problems  and  prevents  attacks  of  febrile  urinary  tract  infections  in  non-healthy  boys  with  defined  urinary  tract  abnormalities.  

Materials and Methods:  This  case-control  study  was  conducted  in  Ibn-i  Sina  Hospital  and  retrospectively  collected  data  of   471 boys  were  analyzed.  All  patients  were  scanned  for  any  urinary  tract  abnormality  and  those  with  any  defined  abnormalities  were  classified  as  non-healthy  group. (123 patients)  Non-healthy  patients  were  divided  into  two  subgroups  as  concealed  (n:31)  and  non-concealed  (n:92)  penis  after  circumcision.  Healthy  patients  with  no  urinary  problems  were  divided  into  three  groups  as  circumcised  without  concealed  penis  (n:144),  with  concealed  penis  after  circumcision  (n:104)  and  uncircumcised  control  group  (n:100).  Bacterial  cultures  were  obtained  from  both  periurethral  meatal  and  glanular  sulcus  areas  by  adhering  strictly  to  the  rules  of  obtaining  bacterial  culture  to  avoid  false-positive  or  negative  culture  results.  Also  only  uropathogenic  bacterias  were  evaluated,  irrelevant  results  were  excluded.     

Results:  Mean  age  was  similar  in  healthy  population.  Comparison  of  three  groups  showed  that  there  was  a  significant  difference  in  both  cultures.(P = .026 for periurethral meatal region, P = .039 for glanular sulcus region)  In  post  hoc  analysis,  non-concealed  group  had  a  lower  rate  of  culture  positivity  in  both  areas  compared  to  other  groups.    Mean  age  was  also  similar  in  non-healthy  population.  Mean  follow-up  period  was  18.2  months.  Patients  with  concealed  penis  after  circumcision  had  a  significantly  higher  number  of  febrile  UTI  attacks  (20 attacks in 8 patients vs 7 attacks in 5 patients)  compared  to  non-concealed  group. (P = .019)  All  febrile  UTI  attacks  except  one  in  this  group  occurred  below  the  age  of  12  months. A  total  of  10 patients  in  both  healthy  and  non-healthy  groups  had  postoperative  hemorrhage  after  circumcision  and  only  1  patient  had  a  wound  infection.          

Conclusion:  Concealed  penis  after  circumcision  does  not  lower  perimeatal  urethral  and  glanular  sulcus  uropathogenic  bacterial  colonization  in  healthy  patients  and does not  protect  unhealthy  patients  from  febrile  urinary  tract  infection  attacks.  If  circumcision  is  planned,  concealed  penis  should  be  avoided  and  also  parents  should  be  informed  about  the  possible  risks  due  to  concealed  penis  before  the  procedure,  particularly  in  patients  with  urinary  tract  abnormalities.   



- Tewary K, Narchi H. Recurrent urinary tract infections in children: Preventive interventions other than prophylactic antibiotics, World J Methodol. 2015;26:13-19.

- Bader M, McCarthy L. What is the efficacy of circumcision in boys with complex urinary tract abnormalities? Pediatr Nephrol. 2013;28:2267-2272.

- Sorokan ST, Finlay JC, Jefferies AL, Canadian Paediatric Society, Fetus and Newborn Committee, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Newborn male circumcision, Paediatr Child Health. 2015;20:311-320.

- Na AF, Tanny SP, Hutson JM. Circumcision: Is it worth it for 21st-century Australian boys? J Paediatr Child Health. 2015;51:580-583.

- Wiswell TE, Miller GM, Gelston HM Jr, Jones SK, Clemmings AF. Effect of circumcision status on periurethral bacterial flora during the first year of life. J Pediatr. 1988;113:442-446.

- ICR. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.2013

- Hellerstein S. Urinary tract infections in children: why they occur and how to prevent them. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57:2440-2446, 2452-2454.

- Earp BD. Do the Benefits of Male Circumcision Outweigh the Risks? A Critique of the Proposed CDC Guidelines. Front Pediatr. 2015;3:18.

- Abdulwahab-Ahmed A, Mungadi IA. Techniques of male circumcision. J Surg Tech Case Rep. 2013;5:1-7.

- Gold G, Young S, O'Brien M, Babl FE. Complications following circumcision: Presentations to the emergency department. J Paediatr Child Health. 2015;51:1158-1163.

- Odoyo-June E, Feldblum PJ, Fischer S, Bailey RC, Obiero W, Hart C, Veena V, Combes S, Cherutich P. Unexpected Complications Following Adult Medical Male Circumcision Using the PrePex Device. Urol Int. 2016;96:188-193.

- Demaria J, Abdulla A, Pemberton J, Raees A, Braga LH. Are physicians performing neonatal circumcisions well-trained? Can Urol Assoc J. 2013;7:260-264.

- Steadman B, Ellsworth P. To circ or not to circ: indications, risks, and alternatives to circumcision in the pediatric population with phimosis. Urol Nurs. 2006;26:181-194.

- Gücük A, Burgu B, Gökçe İ, Mermerkaya M, Soygür T. Do antibiotic prophylaxis and/or circumcision change periurethral uropathogen colonization and urinary tract infection rates in boys with VUR? J Pediatr Urol. 2013;6:1131-1136.

- Kose E, Yavascan O, Turan O, Kangin M, Bal A, Alparslan C, Sirin Kose S, Kuyum P, Aksu N. The effect of circumcision on the frequency of urinary tract infection, growth and nutrition status in infants with antenatal hydronephrosis. Ren Fail. 2013;35:1365-1369.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.5192


  • There are currently no refbacks.