The Effect of Heroin Addiction on Human Sperm Parameters, Histone-To-Protamine Transition, and Serum Sexual Hormone Levels

Zohreh Nazmara, Mohammad Najafi, Samira Rezaei-Mojaz, Mansoureh Movahedin, Zahara Zandiyeh, Peymaneh Shirinbayan, Mohsen Roshanpajouh, Hamid Reza Asgari, Leila Hosseini Jafari Lavasani, Morteza Koruji

Abstract


343

Purpose: To investigate the effects of heroin on sperm parameters, histone-to-protamine transition ratios in mature sperm, and serum reproductive hormone levels in active heroin users.

Materials and Methods: Semen and blood samples were collected from 25 men who used only heroin for at least 12 months and the same number healthy men who did not use any drugs and did not suffer from infertility problems. Computer-based analysis, Aniline blue staining, and Hormones assessment were performed to provide valuable new information on the relationship between addiction and semen profile and serum reproductive hormone levels.

Results: Our finding showed that semen PH (7.8 vs. 7.75), sperm motility (42.93 ± 3.89% vs. 68.9 ± 2.68%), and viability (73.27 ± 3.85% vs. 86.48 ± 1.05%), and sperm histone replacement abnormalities (32.33 ± 10.89% vs. 5.56 ± 0.85%) were significant differences in addicted group vs. non-exposed ones (P ? .05). In addition, serum sex hormone levels were not significantly differed between groups. There was a correlation between the amount of daily heroin consumption and LH level. We also observed that duration of drug dependence is correlated with sperm abnormalities.

Conclusions: We concluded that heroin consumption affect sperm maturities such as histone-to-protamine ratio and impair semen profile in general and particularly sperm morphology and motility. Heroin may be considered as one of the idiopathic male infertility reason.


Full Text:

Just Accepted

52

References


Macleod J, Oakes R, Copello A, et al. Psychological and social sequelae of cannabis and other illicit drug use by young people: a systematic review of longitudinal, general population studies. Lancet. 2004;363:1579-88.

Shirinbayan P, Rafiey H, Vejdani Roshan A, Narenjiha H, Farhoudian A. Predictors of retention in methadone maintenance therapy: a prospective multi-center study. Sci Res Essay. 2010;5:3231-6.

Razzaghi EM, Movaghar AR, Green TC, Khoshnood K. Profiles of risk: a qualitative study of injecting drug users in Tehran, Iran. Harm Reduct J. 2006;3:12.

Yassami M, Shahmohammadi D. Epidemiology of Drug Abuse in IR Iran. Ministry of Health and Medical Education. 2002.

Akerele E, Olupona T. Drugs of Abuse. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2017;40:501-17.

Tajaddini Mahani S, Behnam B, Abbassi M, et al. Tsga10 expression correlates with sperm profiles in the adult formalin-exposed mice. Andrologia. 2016;48:1092-9.

Safarinejad MR, Asgari SA, Farshi A, et al. The effects of opiate consumption on serum reproductive hormone levels, sperm parameters, seminal plasma antioxidant capacity and sperm DNA integrity. Reprod Toxicol. 2013;36:18-23.

Ragni G, LAURETIS L, BESTETTI O, SGHEDONI D, ARO V. Gonadal function in male heroin and methadone addicts. International journal of andrology. 1988;11:93-100.

Fronczak CM, Kim ED, Barqawi AB. The insults of illicit drug use on male fertility. J Androl. 2012;33:515-28.

du Plessis SS, Agarwal A, Syriac A. Marijuana, phytocannabinoids, the endocannabinoid system, and male fertility. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2015;32:1575-88.

Mohammadzadeh E, Amjadi F-S, Movahedin M, et al. In vitro development of embryos from experimentally Kerack-addicted Mice. Iran J Reprod Med. 2017;15:413-22.

Miller D, Brinkworth M, Iles D. Paternal DNA packaging in spermatozoa: more than the sum of its parts? DNA, histones, protamines and epigenetics. Reproduction. 2010;139:287-301.

Yu B, Qi Y, Liu D, et al. Cigarette smoking is associated with abnormal histone-to-protamine transition in human sperm. Fertil Steril. 2014;101:51-7 e1.

Amini M, Shirinbayan P, Behnam B, et al. Correlation between expression of CatSper family and sperm profiles in the adult mouse testis following Iranian Kerack abuse. Andrology. 2014;2:386-93.

Fazelipour S, Tootian Z. Effect of heroin used in Iran on male fertility of mice. Int J Pharmacol. 2007;3:406-10.

Clark JT, Gabriel SM, Simpkins JW, Kalra SP, Kalra PS. Chronic morphine and testosterone treatment. Effects on sexual behavior and dopamine metabolism in male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1988;48:97-104.

Yilmaz B, Konar V, Kutlu S, et al. Influence of chronic morphine exposure on serum LH, FSH, testosterone levels, and body and testicular weights in the developing male rat. Arch Androl. 1999;43:189-96.

Fazelipour S, Tootian Z. Effect of Heroin Used in Iran on Male Fertility of Mice. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2007;3:406-10.

Diamond F, Jr., Ringenberg L, MacDonald D, et al. Effects of drug and alcohol abuse upon pituitary-testicular function in adolescent males. J Adolesc Health Care. 1986;7:28-33.

Hagan S, Khurana N, Chandra S, et al. Differential expression of novel biomarkers (TLR-2, TLR-4, COX-2, and Nrf-2) of inflammation and oxidative stress in semen of leukocytospermia patients. Andrology. 2015;3:848-55.

Agarwal A, Mulgund A, Alshahrani S, et al. Reactive oxygen species and sperm DNA damage in infertile men presenting with low level leukocytospermia. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2014;12:126.

Tajaddini S, Ebrahimi S, Behnam B, et al. Antioxidant effect of manganese on the testis structure and sperm parameters of formalin-treated mice. Andrologia. 2014;46:246-53.

Subiran N, Agirregoitia E, Valdivia A, Ochoa C, Casis L, Irazusta J. Expression of enkephalin-degrading enzymes in human semen and implications for sperm motility. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1571-7.

Rahimipour M, Talebi AR, Anvari M, Sarcheshmeh AA, Omidi M. Effects of different doses of ethanol on sperm parameters, chromatin structure and apoptosis in adult mice. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2013;170:423-8.

La Maestra S, De Flora S, Micale RT. Effect of cigarette smoke on DNA damage, oxidative stress, and morphological alterations in mouse testis and spermatozoa. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2015;218:117-22.

Hammadeh ME, Hamad MF, Montenarh M, Fischer-Hammadeh C. Protamine contents and P1/P2 ratio in human spermatozoa from smokers and non-smokers. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:2708-20.

Cushman P, Jr. Plasma testosterone in narcotic addiction. Am J Med. 1973;55:452-8.

Azizi F, Vagenakis AG, Longcope C, Ingbar SH, Braverman LE. Decreased serum testosterone concentration in male heroin and methadone addicts. Steroids. 1973;22:467-72.

Kolodny RC, Masters WH, Kolodner RM, Toro G. Depression of plasma testosterone levels after chronic intensive marihuana use. N Engl J Med. 1974;290:872-4.

Mirin SM, Mendelson JH, Ellingboe J, Meyer RE. Acute effects of heroin and naltrexone on testosterone and gonadotropin secretion: A pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1976;1:359-69.

Donnelly GP, McClure N, Kennedy MS, Lewis SE. Direct effect of alcohol on the motility and morphology of human spermatozoa. Andrologia. 1999;31:43-7.

Limonta P, Piva F, Maggi R, Dondi D, Motta M, Martini L. Morphine stimulates prolactin release in normal but not in castrated male rats. J Reprod Fertil. 1986;76:745-50.

Ellingboe J, Mendelson JH, Kuehnle JC. Effects of heroin and naltrexone on plasma prolactin levels in man. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1980;12:163-5.

Geoffroy-Siraudin C, Loundou AD, Romain F, et al. Decline of semen quality among 10 932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille, France. Asian J Androl. 2012;14:584-90.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v0i0.4321


Creative Commons License 
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License