Comparison between High Cell-Density Culture Systems for Chondrogenic Differentiation and Articular Cartilage Reconstruction of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Literature Review

Hossein Mahboudi, Bahram Kazemi, Hana Hanaee-Ahvaz, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi, Mohamad Eftekhary, Seyed Ehsan Enderami



High-cell density culture is based on the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), and because the high density of cell and reduced oxygen tension are effective in chondrogenic differentiation. In the present paper, there will be a review about the methods of chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs that utilized in in vitro and in vivo chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells for treatment of osteoarthritis. There are three High-cell density culture systems; micromass, pellet culture, and alginate culture have been used to induce chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Transplanted naive MSCs can cause problems such as heterogeneous populations. To overcome this problem, new strategies for inducing differentiation of MSCs are needed. One possibility is a cell culture system. Collagen II and aggrecan are critical protein in chondrogenic differentiation. In all different methods, real time RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that collagen II and aggrecan mRNA are up regulated while collagen X and collagen I mRNA are down regulated. So these three high-density cell culture systems have been approved for chondrogenic differentiation. On the other hand, In micromass method, the induced-cartilage tissues are larger, more homogenous and rich in cartilage specific collagen II, but collagen I, collagen X and hypertrophic chondrocyte features are markedly decreased compared to other culture system. Thus, the micromass culture system is the best tool for in vitro chondrogenic differentiation studies.


Chondrogenesis; Mesenchymal stem cells; High-cell density culture

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