ACL injury prevention programs due to intrinsic and modifiable risk factors in female Athletes

Naghmeh Gheidi, Heidar Sadeghi



Introduction and Aims: Epidemiological studies have shown that female athletes, ACL injuries have happened 2 to 10 times more than male athletes. Neuromuscular and biomechanical factors in anterior cruciate ligament injuries among risk factors are modifiable. The high cost of treatment, increasing the potential loss of the competitive season and long-term disability and secondary damage, caused to be notable of injury prevention program application. In this review of research literature related to modifiable risk factors, ACL injury prevention training is studied.

Methodology: To identify research database Medline Pubmed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscuss and SCOPUS using the keywords "ACL", "Knee injuries", "modifiable risk factors", "neuromuscular risk factor", "biomechanical risk factor", "training prevention program "was used. Finally were identified 8500 studies. After exclusion of non-English, duplicated, similar studies were indexed, animal studies, studies with injured subjects, studies focused on clinical treatment, studies without any intervention, 60 studies remained eligible for studying.

Results: The review of literature on this point can be emphasized that the weakness and imbalance of the trunk and lower limb neuromuscular control cause to increase prevalence of ACL injuries in female. Prevention training was categorized in two levels with the aim to modify of risk factors and reduce the rate of ACL injury.  Although, most effective intervention training exercises are multilateral program for at least 6 weeks in advance of the season and continued throughout the season with a repeat at least twice a week with a trainer to attend to the practice.

Conclusion: Identifying neuromuscular imbalance can be used to screening of athletes at risk and designing the intervention training. Meanwhile, still the standard program aimed at preventing specific to each sport has not been introduced.

Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, injury risk factors and internal modifiable risk factor, prevention training, female athletes



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