The relation between in hand manipulation skills,and visual-motor

Minoo Kalantari, Mina Mirahmadpour, Navid Mirzakhani, Fatemeh Hadavand Khani, Vahid Nejati



Background and Aim:Hand writing is one of the most important abilities that children can gain and use as one part of their duties during their schooling. Students should write fluently and fast to

have good connection with school works and gain good grades in exams. It is clear that hand writing problems can influence on

grades than students with nice hand writing. Recognition of sub base items in this problem will be affective in assessment, intermediation and prevention programs for children who are suffering from this problem. This study is designed to appoint the relation between in hand manipulation skills and

visual-motor integration skills with hand writing skills of students of grade one of primary schools in Tehran.

children’s other abilities, because this skill is declared often as a reflection of intelligence and although what they write is the same, students with bad hand writing gain lower



Material & Methods: This study was a descriptive-analytic (sectional) investigation. 139 students

had been chosen by accident. Instruments which had been used in this study consisted of visual-motor integration test, hand writing quality checklist, chronometer and nine hole PEG test. After data collection, the results were analyzed.

Results:The results indicate that visual- motor integration and in hand manipulation skills both are

affective in

children’s hand writing skills. Grades of girls and boys in visual-motor integration were significantly different. Mean grade of girls in this test was higher than boys, but these variants in hand manipulation skills were not significantly different. Also there was no significant different in handwriting speed and quality between boys and girls. 



Conclusion:The results indicate that by assessment of visual- motor integration skills and in hand

manipulation skills we may be able to find more exact ways to prevent and treat children who are suffering from hand writing problems.

Key word:Hand writing, Visual-motor integration, in hand manipulation, nine hole PEG test 

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