The quest for exploring the normal speed of handwriting in students of grade 2-5 in Tehran

Atiyeh javan Tash, Navid Mirzakhani, Zahra Pashazadeh




Background and Aim: Slow handwriting speed is one of the major problems encountered by school-aged children having handwriting difficulties. These children are often referred to occupational therapy for assessment and intervention. However, to date, no norms of handwriting speed have been published for the Iranian writing system for school-aged children. The purpose of this study was to document handwriting speed performance of Tehran children from Grades 2 to 5.

Materials and Methods : Participants were 400 children from Grades 2 to 5 from 20 elementary schools in Tehran. Participants were asked to copy text that was printed at the top of page on the writing lines below with normal speed at 5 minutes .Then, the sheets were gathered and  number of letters written, were calculated by Two raters . There for, Scores of 120 students rated as fast, normal or slow by their teachers were compared to examine the test's construct validity

Results: Results showed that 50% of children were boys and 50% were girls. And 75% of children were studied in governmental schools and 25% of them were studied in nongovernmental schools. And 80% children were Right-handed and 20% were left-handed.

Conclusion:  Results showed that handwriting speed increased with age; and the rate of increase was found to be greatest among Grade 5. And handwriting speed assessment test has excellent inter-rater reliability (r=1, p=0.000) and construct validity (r=0/798, p=0.000).

Keywords: Iranian writing system, normalize, handwriting speed, elementary students, occupational therapy.

مقدمه و هدف

كند نويسي يكي از مشكلات بزرگ دانش آموزان در سنين مدرسه مي باشد. اين دانش آموزان اغلب جهت بررسي و درمان به مراكز كاردرماني ارجاع داده مي شوند. و از آنجا كه تا به امروز معياري از سرعت دست نويسي دانش آموزان در سيستم نوشتاري ايران وجود ندارد، هدف از اين پژوهش ثبت هنجاري از سرعت دست نويسي دانش آموزان تهران مي باشد.

مواد و روش ها

مطالعه ي حاضر از نوع توصيفي – مقطعي مي باشد. جامعه ي مورد مطالعه شامل 400 دانش آموزان پايه ي دوم تا پنچم ابتدايي 20 مدرسه ي شهر تهران مي باشد. كه مي بايست متني را كه در بالاي برگه ي آنها چاپ شده بود را با سرعت معمولي خود در خطوط نوشتاري پايين برگه ، درمدت 5 دقيقه رونويسي مي كردند. سپس برگه ها جمع آوري شده و جهت اثبات interrater reliability تعداد حروف نوشته در هر برگه توسط دو ارزياب شمارش شد و ميانگين و هنجار هر پايه بدست آمد. جهت اثبات construct validity ، از آموزگاران در خواست شد به120 دانش آموز ي كه به صورت تصادفي انتخاب شده بودند ، به عنوان كند نويس ، نرمال يا تند نويس امتياز دهند. و اين امتيازات با امتياز كسب شده از آزمون سنجش سرعت دست نويسي مقايسه شد.

یافته ها

بر طبق يافته ها50 درصد دانش آموزان مورد مطالعه دختر و 50 درصد دانش آموزان پسر بودند و  75 درصد آنها در مدارس دولتی و 25 درصد آنها در مدارس غیر دولتی مشغول به تحصيل بودند و همچنين 80 درصد دانش آموزان مورد مطالعه راست دست و 20 درصد دانش آموزان چپ دست بودند.

بحث و نتیجه گیری

نتايج نشان داد که سرعت دست نويسي با بالا رفتن پايه ي تحصيلي بيشتر مي شود و بيشترين افزايش در پايه ي پنجم ديده شد. . يافته ها نشان داد آزمون سنجش سرعت دست نويسي از پايايي(000/0= P ، 1= r) اعتبار (000/0= P ، 798/0= r) بالايي برخوردار است.

واژگان كليدي

سيستم نوشتاري ايران - هنجار يابي - سرعت دست نويسي– دانش آموزان ابتدايي- كاردرماني


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