• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Using nucleotide sequencing to determine HBV genotypes in Kerman

Najibe Monemi, Masoumeh Hajirezaei, Nasrollah Saleh-Gohari




Background: Hepatitis viruses are one of the serious medical problems and Hepatitis B is one of the chief transferable disease via blood and its products. Nowadays, 11 genotypes of hepatitis B have known over the world by the genome sequencing. Hepatitis B viruses have special geographical distribution. The clinical importance of hepatitis B viruses and its relation with the mutations has recognized. The purpose of this study was to check the presence and prevalence of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among the referrals attended to the medical diagnostic laboratories in Kerman province.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, twenty-one specimens were collected from blood samples available in the medical diagnostic laboratories of Kerman province during one year. After DNA extraction, PCR was carried on by specific primers, then they were sequenced. The obtained sequenced were compared with sequences in the NCBI gene bank and blasted for identification of their genotypes.

Results: Seven samples from twenty one samples (33.3%) had D genotype, 13 samples from 21 (62%) had D3 subgenotype and 1 sample from 21 (4.7%) had D4 subgenotype.

Conclusion: The prevalence of these genotypes in the Kermanian patients that recognized in this study can help to provide diagnostic kits for hepatitis B virus.

Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, genotype, PCR, Sequencing, NCBI.


Hepatitis B virus, genotype, PCR, Sequencing,NCBI


Marcellin MD, George KK, Lau MD, Ferruccio B, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2-a alone, Lamivudine ‎alone and the two in combination in Patients with HBeAg Negative Chronic hepatitis B. N.Engl.Med. 2004;351:1206-17.

Maureen M, Jones MD, Deirdre A, Kelly MD, Jacek Mizersky MD, et al. Clinical Trial of Lamivudine in ‎Children With Chronic Hepatitis B. NEJM. 2002; 346:1706-13.

Wands JR. Prevention of (HBV) hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med 2004; 351(15):1567-70 .

Ott‎ ‎MJ‎,‎‎ ‎Aruda‎ ‎M.‎‎ ‎Hepatitis‎ ‎B‎ ‎vaccine‎.‎‎ ‎J‎ ‎Pediatr‏ ‏Health‎ ‎Care. 1999;1‎‎3:‎‎2‎‎1‎‎1‎‎-‎‎6‎‎.

Jamison DT, Mosley WH, Measham AR. Disease control ‎Priorities ‎in ‎Developing Countries, ‎A ‎World Bank Book, ‎Oxford ‎University Press, ‎New ‎York 1993; 321-330

‎ Francis YY, Norah AT, Chris F, Lin M,Nathan MB. Lamivudin treatment ‎is ‎beneficial ‎in patients ‎with severly‎‏ ‏decompensated cirrhosis and actively ‎replieating ‎hepatitis B ‎infection awaiting liver ‎transplantation: A comprativ ‎study using a ‎matched, ‎untreated cohort. Hepatology 2001; 34(2): 411-‎‎6.

Steinmetzer T,Hardes K,Bottcher-Frietshauser E,Garten W.Strategies for the development of influenza drugs: basis for new efficient combination therapies, Diederich, Wibke E.Steuber, Holger (Eds) Therapy of viral infections, Springer, Top MedChem. 2015;15:143 -82.

Leah AB, Kristen MM. Drugs to treat viral hepatitis, Infectious diseases (Fourth edition), Elsevier. 2017;1327-32.

Sunbul M, Leblebicioglu H. Distribution of hepatitis B‏ ‏virus genotypes ‎in ‎patients ‎with chronic ‎hepatitis B in‏ ‏Turkey. World J ‎Gastroenterol. 2005;‎‎11(13):1976-80.‎

Arifur Rahman MD, Hakim F, Mamun A, Chowdhury R, et al. ‎Prevalence of genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis B ‎viruses in ‎Bangladeshi ‎population Springerplus. 2016; 5: 278.

Ong HT, Duraisamy G, Kee Peng N, Wen Siang T, Seow HF. ‎Genotyping ‎of ‎hepatitis B virus ‎in ‎Malaysia based on the nucleotide ‎sequence of preS and S ‎genes. ‎Microbes Infect. 2005;7(3):494-‎‎500‎‎.

Watanabe K, Takahashi T, Takahashi S, Okoshi S, et al. Comparative ‎study ‎of ‎genotype B and C hepatitis B virus-‎induced ‎chronic hepatitis in relation to the ‎basic core ‎promoter and ‎precore ‎mutations. J ‎Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005:20(3):441-9

Alexopoulou A, Dourakis SP. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatitis ‎viruses ‎and ‎its ‎clinical ‎significance. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005;4(1):‎‎47-55

Song BC, Cui XJ, Kim H. Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Korea: an ‎endemic ‎area ‎of hepatitis B ‎virus ‎infection. Intervirology. 2005;48(2-3) 133-7

Thakur V, Sarin SK, Rehman S, Guptan RC, et al. Role ‎of ‎HBV ‎genotype ‎in ‎predicting response to lamivudine therapy in patients ‎with chronic ‎hepatitis ‎B. Indian J ‎Gastroenterol. 2005;24(1):12-5.

Jack R, Wands MD. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. N E J M. 2004;‎‎351(15):1567-70.

Qafourian S, mohebi R, khosravi A, Malekim A, et al. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA by Real-Time PCR in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients, Ilam, Iran. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2011;9(4):478-80.

Qorbanalizadegan M, Ranjbar R, Goodarzi Z. Compare the method immunochemiluminescence with PCR to detect hepatitis B virus in patients referring to Bghaiyat Allah hospital laboratory. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences. 2010;15(2):1-6. [persian]

Moradi A, Kazeminejad V, Molana A, Bazoori M. HBV genotypes in Golestan province of Iran. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Organ. 2010;7(1):27-33. [Persian]

Salem F, Aghasadeghi M, Javadi F, Roohvand F, Joolaee M, Bahramali G, et al. Using RFLP -PCR and Direct Sequencing to Determine HBV Genotypes in Intravenous Drug User Prisoners in Tehran Province. RJMS. 2010;17(71):56-65. [Persian]

Liu‏ W, Mizokami M, Buti M, Lindh M, Young K. Simultaneous ‎quantification ‎and ‎genotyping ‎of hepatitis B virus for genotypes A to G by ‎Real-Time PCR and ‎two-step ‎melting curve ‎analysis. Jornal of Clinical ‎Microbiology. 2006;44(12):‎‎4491–7.

Patricia‏ ‏A, Helene N, Betty H, Robertson, Lars O. Genotype ‎H: ‎a ‎new ‎amerindian ‎genotype of hepatitis B virus revealed in central ‎America. ‎Journal ‎of ‎General Virology. 2002;83: ‎2059–73.

Stuyver‏ ‏L, Gendt S, Geyt C, Zoulim F, et al. A new ‎genotype of hepatitis B virus: complete ‎genome ‎and ‎phylogenetic ‎relatedness. Journal of ‎General Virology. 2000;81:67–74.

Jeong Sh, Kim JM, Ahn HJ, Park MJ, et al. ‎The ‎prevalence‎‏ ‏and ‎clinical ‎characteristics of hepatitis-delta Infection in ‎Korea. ‎Korean J Hepatol. 2005;11(1):43-50.

Hadinedoushan H, Dehghan-Manshadi M, Zare F. Determination ‎of ‎hepatitis ‎B ‎virus ‎genotypes in Yazd, central province of Iran. International ‎Journal ‎of ‎Medical ‎Laboratory 2015;2(2):81-6.

Sharifi Z, Gharehbaghian A, Noroozi M. Prevalence of hepatitis B virus genotypes to be determined by sequencing in blood donors in Kerman, Esfahan and Yazd. Sci J Iran Blood Transfus Organ. 2010;6(4):248-256. [persian]

Shakeri MT, Foghanian B, Nomani H, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, Nabavinia MS, et al. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Mashhad, Iran: A population-based study. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013;15(3):245-8. ‎

Salimzadeh L, Karimi A, Bagheri N, Heidari K, Hosseini SM. Genotyping of hepatitis B virus in HBsAg positive individuals referred to the health centers of Shahrekord; Iran, Armaghane-danesh, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences Journal 2012;7(28):17-5

Mohamadkhani A. The biology and genetic variation of hepatitis B virus. Govaresh. 2014;18(4):203-15.

Alavian SM, Fallahian F, Lankarani KB, The changing‏ ‏epidemiology of viral ‎hepatitis B in Iran. J‏ ‏Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2007;16(4):403-6.

Amini-Bavil-Olyaee S, Alavian SM, Adeli A, Sarrami‏ ‏Forooshani R, Sabahi F, Sabouri ‎E. Complete‏ ‏genomic sequence and phylogenetic relatedness of‏ ‏hepatitis B virus ‎genotyping, core promoter, and‏ ‏precore/core mutations among Afghan patients infected‏ ‏with hepatitis B:A preliminary report. J Med Virol. 2006;78(3):358-64.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i3.19915