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Indicating Indices of the effectiveness and benefits of treatment

Asghar Ashrafi Hafez




Sharon E. Straus, et al; Evidence-Based Medicine: How to Practice and Teach It, 4e (Straus, Evidence-Based Medicine), 2011.

Soltani A, et al; Evidence based Medicine. Tehran University of medical sciences Press, 2005.

Hill J, Bullock I, Alderson P. A summary of the methods that the National Clinical Guideline Centre uses to produce clinical guidelines for the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:752-7.

Kilkenny C, Parsons N, Kadyszewski E, et al.Survey of the quality of experimental design, statistical analysis and reporting of research using animals. PLoS One. 2009;4:7824

A-W Chan, F Song, A Vickers, et al. Increasing value and reducing waste: addressing inaccessible research. Lancet (2014) published online Jan 8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13):62296-5.

Paul Glasziou, Douglas G Altman, Patrick Bossuyt, Isabelle Boutron, Mike Clarke, Steven Julious, Susan Michie, David Moher, Elizabeth Wager, Reducing waste from incomplete or unusable reports of biomedical research, The Lancet. 2014;383(9913):18-24.

Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP. STROBE Initiative. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Lancet. 2007;370:1453–7.

Ioannidis JP. Why most published research findings are false. PLoS Med. 2005;2:e124. TA Lang, M Secic How to report statistics in medicine (2nd edn.)American College of Physicians, Philadelphia.

TA Lang, M Secic. How to report statistics in medicine (2nd edn.) American College of Physicians, Philadelphia. 2006.

Murad M, Montori VM, Ioannidis JA, et al. How to read a systematic review and meta-analysis and apply the results to patient care: Users’ guides to the medical literature. JAMA. 2014;312(2):171-9.

Every‐Palmer S, Howick J. How evidence‐based medicine is failing due to biased trials and selective publication. J Eval Clin Pract. 2014.

PM Bossuyt, JB Reitsma, DE Bruns, for the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy, et al. Towards complete and accurate reporting of studies of diagnostic accuracy: the STARD initiative. BMJ. 2003;326:41–4

Turner EH, Matthews AM, Linardatos E, Tell R, Rosenthal R. Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:252-60.

W Bouwmeester, NP Zuithoff, S Mallett, et al. Reporting and methods in clinical prediction research: a systematic review. PLoS Med. 2012;9:1–12.

Moynihan R, Doust J, Henry D. Preventing overdiagnosis: how to stop harming the healthy. BMJ. 2012;344:e3502.

D Fanelli. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoS One. 2009;4:5738.

RHH Groenwold, AMM Van Deursen, AW Hoes, E Hak. Poor quality of reporting confounding bias in observational intervention studies: a systematic review. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:746–51.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v5i4.18879