• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Survey of Expression of Aflatoxin Production Regulator Gene (aflR) in Aspergillus Parasiticus by Alpinia Galanga L and Dorema Aucheri

Zahra Arab-Mazar, Ensieh lotfali, Ali Ghadjari, Sanaz Aghaei Gharehbolagh, Reza Mohammadi, Sadegh Nouripour-Sisakht




Background: Aflatoxins are one of the highly toxic secondary metabolites, which are mainly produced by Aspergillus parasiticus. This species frequently cause of food and agricultural products contamination including cereals, peanuts, and crops in the field. During recent years, researchers have considered research on elimination of aflatoxin and antifungal effects of medicinal herbals, such as Alpinia galanga L and Dorema aucheri. In this study, the effect of A.galanga L and D.aucheri a natural compound was examined on Aspergillus parasiticus growth, aflatoxins production and the aflR gene expression.

Materials and Methods: Antifungal susceptibility A.galanga L and D.aucheri was performed according to CLSI document M38-A2. Quantitative changes in aflR gene level of expression were analyzed by Real-time PCR method.

Results: Our result obtained that the MIC of extracts on A. parasiticus growth 250 mg/mL for D.aucheri and 800 mg/mL for A.galanga L. D.aucheri has antitoxic properties as well as its effective ability to decrease aflatoxin production. The level of aflR gene expression was decreased significantly after the exposure of fungal cell to D.aucheri extract, but A.galanga L didn’t have significant effect.

Conclusion: This research indicated that D.aucheri has antifungal effects more than A.galanga L. Due to our obtained result we can suggest that D.aucheri herbal extract may have antifungal potential in medicine or agriculture.


Aflatoxin, Aspergillus parasiticus, Alpinia galangal, Dorema aucheri


Azab RM, Tawakkol WM, Hamad A, Abou-Elmagd M, El-Agrab H, Refai M. Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feeds and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi. Egyptian Journal of Natural Toxins. 2005;2:39-56.

Groopman JD, Kensler TW, Wild CP. Protective interventions to prevent aflatoxin-induced carcinogenesis in developing countries. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:187-203.

Abou-Bakr S. EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON FUNGAL AND AFLATOXIN PRODUCTION. International Journal of Academic Research. 2011;3(4).

Hewitt M, Girgis G, Brash M, Smith T. Effects of feed-borne mycotoxins on performance, serum chemistry, and intestinal histology of New Zealand White fryer rabbits. Journal of animal science. 2012;90(13):4833-8.

Yang X-J, Lu H-Y, Li Z-Y, Bian Q, Qiu L-L, Li Z, et al. Cytochrome P450 2A13 mediates aflatoxin B1-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human bronchial epithelial cells. Toxicology. 2012;300(3):138-48.

Boutrif E. Prevention of aflatoxin in pistachios. FOOD NUTRITION AND AGRICULTURE. 1998:32-7.

Mohseni R, Noorbakhsh F, Moazeni M, Nasrollahi Omran A, Rezaie S. Antitoxin Characteristic of Licorice Extract: The Inhibitory Effect on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus. Journal of Food Safety. 2014;34(2):119-25.

Khlangwiset P, Wu F. Costs and efficacy of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin-induced human disease. Food Additives and Contaminants. 2010;27(7):998-1014.

Alpsoy L. Inhibitory effect of essential oil on aflatoxin activities. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(17):2474-81.

Watson AJ, Fuller LJ, Jeenes DJ, Archer DB. Homologs of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Genes and Sequence of aflR in Aspergillus oryzae andAspergillus sojae. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1999;65(1):307-10.

Yu J, Chang P-K, Ehrlich KC, Cary JW, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland TE, et al. Clustered pathway genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2004;70(3):1253-62.

Yu J, Chang P-K, Cary JW, Wright M, Bhatnagar D, Cleveland TE, et al. Comparative mapping of aflatoxin pathway gene clusters in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1995;61(6):2365-71.

Khan M, Ashfaq M, Zuberi H, Mahmood M, Gilani A. The in vivo antifungal activity of the aqueous extract from Nigella sativa seeds. Phytotherapy Research. 2003;17(2):183-6.

Yazdi FT, Behbahani BA, Vasiee A, Mortazavi SA, Yazdi FT. An investigation on the effect of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Dorema aucheri (Bilhar) on some pathogenic bacteria in vitro. Journal of Paramedical Sciences. 2015;6(1).

Azarneoshan F, Khatam Saz S, Sadeghi H. The effects of hydro alcoholic extract of Dorema Aucheri on blood concentration of gonadotropin and androgen hormones in adult male rats. Armaghane danesh. 2009;14(3):63-70.

Mood SG. A contribution to some ethnobotanical aspects of Birjand flora (Iran). Pak J Bot. 2008;40(4):1783-91.

Gheisari HR, Habibi H, Khadem A, Anbari S, Khadem AA. Comparison of Antimicrobial activity of Cichorium intybus, Dorema aucheri and Prangos ferulacea extracts against some food borne pathogens. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Allied Sciences. 2016;5(3):80-4.

SHAHIDI GH, Moein M, Foroumadi A, ROKHBAKHSH ZF. Cytotoxic activity of medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine on two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 2002.

Miraghaee SS, Karimi I. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and antimicrobial Properties of Dorema aucheri plant. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012;14(10):684-5.

Yoshikawa M, Shimada H, Murakami N, Shimoda H, Yamahara J, Matsuda H. Development of bioactive functions in Hydrangeae dulcis folium. VI. Syntheses of thunberginols A and F and their 3'-deoxy-derivatives using regiospecific lactonization of stilbene carboxylic acid: structures and inhibitory activity on histamine release of hydramacrophyllols A and B. Chemical and pharmaceutical bulletin. 1996;44(10):1890-8.

Habsah M, Amran M, Mackeen M, Lajis N, Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N, et al. Screening of Zingiberaceae extracts for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2000;72(3):403-10.

Khodavaisy S, Rezaie S, Noorbakhsh F, Baghdadi E, Sharifynia S, Aala F. Effects of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica on Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus parasiticus. Jundishapur journal of microbiology. 2016(In Press).

Jamali M, Ebrahimi M-A, Karimipour M, Shams-Ghahfarokhi M, Dinparast-Djadid N, Kalantari S, et al. An insight into the distribution, genetic diversity, and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus section Flavi in soils of pistachio orchards. Folia microbiologica. 2012;57(1):27-36.

Mirzaei A, Mirzaei N, Ghavamizadeh M. Antioxidant Activity and Cytotoxicity of Dorema aucheri by Artemia urmiana: a Brine Shrimp Lethality Test. Life Sci J. 2013;10:8-12.

Wollenweber E, Dörr M, Rustiyan A. Dorema aucheri, the first umbelliferous plant found to produce exudate flavonoids. Phytochemistry. 1995;38(6):1417.

Mianabadi M, Hoshani M, Salmanian S. Antimicrobial and Anti-oxidative Effects of Methanolic Extract of Dorema aucheri Boiss. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 2015;17(3):623-34.

Khodavandi A, Tahzir NB, Cheng PW, Chen PYV, Alizadeh F, Hrmal NS, et al. Antifungal Activity of Rhizome coptidis and Alpinia galanga L against Candida species. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2013;7:1725-30.

Avasthi AS, Jain S, Bhatnagar M, Ghosal S. In vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of Alpinia galanga. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2015;7(1):78-89.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v6i1.17976