• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Morphological Study of Fasciola Parasites Isolated from Cattle and Sheep in Golestan Province (Iran)

Ahmad Halakou, Hooshang Khazan, Mojgan Bendehpour, Bahram Kazemi




Background: The genus Fasciola parasite causes fascioliasis infection. Fascioliasis is widespread all around the world and it is finding in abundance in the northern provinces of Iran. Cattle and sheep are the main hosts of the Fasciola parasite and intermediate hosts are lymnaeid snails such as Galba and Fossaria. Two main species of this genus are F. hepatica and F. gigantica. One of the most important methods of diagnosing this worm is morphological method. The aim of this study is to identify Fasciola through the morphological method in Golestan province.

Materials and Methods: Fasciola worms taken from infected livestock livers were washed three times with PBS and were stained with carmine alum. After staining using Valero و and Periago Periago methods, the worms were measured morphologically by و   بcalibrated میکروسکوپ microscope, واستریومیکstereomicroscope, and True Chrome II camera. SPSS version 19 was used for analysis of the data.

Results: A total of 45 livers from infected sheep and cattle with Fasciola worms were taken out of 228 samples, including 84 Fasciola hepatica (36.18%), 117 Fasciola gigantica (51.31%) and 27 Fasciola  sp. (11.84%).

Conclusion: This مطالعه study نشان showed داد کهthat هر the two main species of worms that isگ شاخصF.hepatica وand F. gigantica were foundژیگانتیکا inبه فراوانیabundance یافتin Golestan province. The current study was unable to identify 11.84% genus Fasciola showed as Fasciola sp.


Morphological, Fasciola, cattle, sheep and Golestan


Mas-Coma S, Bargues M D. Human liver flukes: A review. Research and Reviews in Parasitology.1997; 57: 145–218.

Boray J C. Fasciolosis. In: Hillyer GV, Hopla CE (Eds) Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Vol. III. CRC, Boca Raton- Florida. 1982;pp 71–88.

Chen M G & Mott K E. Progress in assessment of morbidity due to Fasciola hepatica infection: a review of recent literature. Tropical diseases bulletin. . 1990; 87(4): 1-38.

Mas-coma S, Valero M A, Bargues MD. Chapter2 Fasciola, Lymnaeids and human fascioliasis with a global overview on disease transmission, epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, molecular epidemiology and control. Advances in Parasitology. 2009; 69:41-146

Ashrafi K , Valero M A , Panova M , Periago M V, Massoud J, Mas-Coma S. Phenotypic analysis of adults of Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and intermediate forms from the endemic region of Gilan, Iran. Parasitology International. 2006; 55: 249–260

Ashrafi K, Massoud J , Holakouie K , Jo-Afshani MA, Mahmoodi M , Ebadati N, Rezvani, Artigas P, Bargues MD, Mas-coma S. Nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS-2 sequence characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Galba trancatula. Iranian Journal of Public Health. 2007 ; 36(4): 42-49

Gradwohl, S. Clinical Laboratory Methods and Diagnosis, 7th Edition. The CV Mosby Company, St. Louis, Toronto, London. 1970; p: 1764

Valero MA, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Development differences in the uterus of Fasciola hepatica between livestock liver fluke populations from Bolivian highland and European lowlands Parasitology Research. 2001; 87: 337–342

Dar Y, Vignoles P, Dreyfuss G, Rondelaud D. Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica: comparative morphometric studies on the redial stage of both species. Parasitology Research. 2003; 91: 369–373

Lotfy W M, El-Morshedy H N, Abou El-Hoda M, El-Tawila, Omar E A , Farag HF..Identification of the Egptian species of Fasciola.Veterinary Parasitology. 2002; 103: 323-332

Assmar M, Milaninia A, Amirkhani A, Yadegari D, Forghanparast K, Nahravanian H, Piazak N, Esmayli A, Hovanesian A, Aj Valadkhani Za. Seroepidemiological investigation of fascioliasis in northern Iran. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 1991 ; 15;5(1):23-7.

Hosseini S H, Vaezi V, Jafari G, Rezaei A, Carami G. Epidemiological study of Fasciolosis in Kermanshah Province. Journal of Veterinary Faculty, University of Tehran. 2004; 59(3) : 201-206

Salahimoghaddam A. Epidemiology of Human Fascioliasis in Iran. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Science, 2009; 16(4):385-394

Hatami H, Asmar M, Masoud J , Mansouri F, Namdaritabar H and Ramazankhani A. The first epidemic and new-emerging human fascioliasis in Kermanshah(western iran) and ten-year follow up, 1998-2008. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2012; 3(4):266-272.

Ashrafi K, Bargues MD, O'Neill S, Mas-Coma S. Fascioliasis: A worldwide parasitic disease of importance in travel medicine. Travel medicine and infectious disease. 2014 Dec 31;12(6):636-49.

Eslami A. Veterinary Parasitology, Tehran University Press. 2006 ; pp: 840-844.

Valero MA, Marcos MD, Mas-Coma S-A. Mathematical model for the ontogeny of Fasciola hepatica in the definitive host. Research and Reviews in Parasitology.1996; 56:13–20.

Valero M A, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Phenotypic analysis of adults and eggs of Fasciola hepatica by computer image analysis system. Journal of Helminthology. 2005; 79: 217–225.

Periago M V, Valero M A, El Sayed M, Ashrafi K, El Wakeel A, Mohamed MY, Desquesnes M, Curtale F, Mas-Coma S. First phenotypic description of Fasciola hepatica/Fasciola gigantica intermediate forms from the human endemic area of the Nile Delta, Egypt. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2008;8: 51–58.

Mas-Coma, S. Epidemiology of fascioliasis in human endemic areas. Journal of Helminthology. 2005; 79: 207–216.

Valero M A, Darce N A, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Relationships between host species and morphometric patterns in Fasciola hepatica adults and eggs from the Northern Bolivian Altiplano hyperendemic region. Veterinary Parasitology. 2001a:102: 85–100.

Bargues MD, Mas-Coma S . Reviewing lymnaeid vectors of fasciolosis by ribosomal DNA sequence analyses. Journal of Helminthology. 2001a;79:257–267

Periago M V, Valero M A, Panova M, Mas-Coma S. Phenotypic comparison of allopatric populations of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica from European and African bovines using a computer image analysis system (CIAS). Parasitology Research. 2006; 99: 368–378.

Ashrafi K , Valero M A , Peixoto R V, Artigas P, Panova M , Mas-Coma S. Distribution of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in the endemic area of Guilan, Iran: Relationships between zonal overlap and phenotypic traits. Infection, Genetics and Evolution. 2015; 31 :95–109.

Rokni MB, Mirhendi H, Mizani A, Mohebali M, Sharbatkhori M, Kia EB, Abdoli H, Izadi S. Identification and differentiation of Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica using a simple PCR-restriction enzyme method. Experimental parasitology. 2010 Feb 28;124(2):209-13.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/nbm.v5i4.15589