تبیین شواهد تاریخی مبنی بر تعامل معماری سنتی با طب سنتی

وحیده رحیمی‌مهر, حشمت‌اله متدین, مهرزاد مهربانی

چکیده


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زمینه و هدف: به رغم دامنه وسیع میراث برجای‌مانده از آثار معماری، از اندیشه‌های علمی و فنی این آثار و منابع کسب از سایر علوم، شواهد و مدارکی موجود نیست و مناسبت معماری با طب سنتی به دلیل گستره وسیع این علوم و مطالعات میان‌رشته‌ای محدود دو قلمرو، آشکارا تبیین نشده است و این مناسبت تنها با بررسی آثار معماری و بدون در نظرگرفتن میراث علمی به دست نخواهد آمد. کمبود و ناشناخته‌بودن این منابع منجر به در پرده‌ماندن یا اظهار نظرهای یکسویه برخی پژوهشگران از علوم پشتیبان و سطح دانش طبی معماران شده است. هدف از انجام این تحقیق تبیین شواهد مبتنی بر پیوند معماری با طب سنتی از روزن متون علمی گذشته است تا ابعاد مختلفی از زوایای پنهان اندیشه‌های طبی در شکل‌گیری معماری و پیوند صاحبان این دو قلمرو روشن گردد.

مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه با روش توصیفی ـ تحلیلی به انجام رسیده است. همچنین روش در بخش گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت اسنادی است به طوری که ابتدا وجوه مشترک معماری و طب سنتی بیان گردیده و سپس شواهد مبتنی بر پیوند معماری و طب و مصادیق آن، با استفاده از منابع تاریخی و نرم‌افزار جامع طب سنتی نسخه 1/5 مورد بررسی قرارگرفته است. لازم به ذکر است که روش تجزیه و تحلیل یافته‌ها در این پژوهش، کیفی است.

یافته‌ها: شواهد کتبی و مصادیق کاربرد طب در معماری دو موضوع را درباره چگونگی ارتباط دو علم نشان می‌دهد: 1ـ مشورت از طبیبان در فرایند ساخت؛ 2ـ آگاهی معماران از اصول طبی. چنانچه معماران به یکی از این دو صورت سعی داشته‌اند با تأثیرگذاشتن بر هوا به عنوان مهم‌ترین اصل در حفظ سلامتی و اعراض نفسانی (حالات روحی)، به سلامتی انسان کمک کنند.

نتیجه‌گیری: با نگاهی به رویکرد پیشگیرانه طب و تدابیر اندیشیده‌شده در معماری گذشته، می‌توان راه‌کارها و استانداردهایی متناسب با معماری معاصر ارائه داد که به کیفیت محیط کمک کند و این مهم تنها با آموزش اصول طب سنتی به معماران و یا مشورت از طبیبان در ساخت بنا میسر می‌گردد.


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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/med%20hist%20j.v10i35.21375

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