بررسی جایگاه پزشکی سنتی ایران و تاریخچه آن در پژوهش‌های ایرانی گیاهان دارویی

آرزو رضایی--- استادیار بیوشیمی، گروه علوم سلولی و ملکولی، دانشکده زیست‌شناسی، دانشگاه دامغان، دامغان، ایران پژوهشکده علوم زیستی، دانشگاه دامغان، دامغان، ایران

چکیده


67

زمینه و هدف: ایران کشوری بزرگ و صاحب تاریخی غنی و ارزشمند است و با شرایط آب ‌و هوایی و ارتفاعی ویژه‌ای که دارد از پوشش گیاهی بی‌مانندی برخوردار است. نقش دانشمندان ایرانی پیش و پس از اسلام در رشد و تحول علم به اندازه‌ای است که حتی دانشمندان و پژوهشگران غربی که می‌کوشند یونان و غرب را مهد تمدن و علم معرفی نمایند، نمی‌توانند آن را انکار کنند. تاریخ پزشکی ایرانی به سده‌های پیش از میلاد برمی‌گردد، حتی به گفته خود دانشمندان نامی غربی تاریخ علم، پزشکی ایرانی از بنیان‌گذاران طب یونانی می‌باشد. بررسی جایگاه پزشکی سنتی ایرانی و تاریخچه آن در پژوهش‌های ایرانی گیاهان دارویی هدف این مقاله است.

مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش‌های ایرانی در زمینه گیاهان دارویی با انجام جستجویی محدود به ایران در منابع علمی معتبر مانند PubMed، Scopus و Wiley استخراج و بررسی شدند.

یافته‌ها: اگرچه تلاش‌های ارزشمندی در زمینه معرفی تاریخچه پزشکی سنتی ایرانی، دانشمندان ایرانی و گیاهان دارویی ایران انجام گرفته است، اما به نظر می‌رسد این موضوعات چنانکه باید و شاید مورد توجه جدی قرار نگرفته‌اند. برای نمونه، بانک اطلاعاتی بین‌المللی گیاهان یا گیاهان دارویی ایران وجود ندارد. همچنین کتابی در جستجوی نگارنده یافت نشد که به طور خاص به معرفی گیاهان بوم‌زاد ایران یا گیاهان یک استان پرداخته باشد.

نتیجه‌گیری: شناخت پزشکی سنتی ایرانی و معرفی درخور آن به شکل یک پزشکی مستقل به جامعه بین‌المللی نیازمند مدیریت و برنامه‌ریزی در سطح ملی و تلاش و توجه دانشمندان و پژوهشگران محترم ایرانی به پیشینه تاریخی پزشکی سنتی ایرانی، شناسایی و معرفی کاربردی گیاهان دارویی بوم‌زاد ایرانی است.


موضوع


ایران؛ تاریخ پزشکی؛ طب سنتی؛ گیاهان دارویی

تمام متن:

PDF

48

مراجع


Serajoddini MF. Herbal therapy and medicine in ancient Iran. History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2010; 2(2): 12-33. [Persian]

Haghighat A. The role of Iranian in the history of world civilization. 1st ed. Tehran: Koomesh; 1999. [Persian]

Rezaeizadeh H, Alizadeh M, Naseri M, Ardakani MS. The Traditional Iranian Medicine Point of View on Health and. Iranian J Publ Health 2009; 38(1): 169-172.

Rezaei A, Farzadfard A, Amirahmadi A, Alemi M, Khademi M. Diabetes mellitus and its management with medicinal plants: A perspective based on Iranian research. Journal of ethnopharmacology 2015; 175: 567-616. PMID: 26283471.

Abrahams E. Right drug-right patient-right time: personalized medicine coalition. Clinical and Translational Science 2008; 1(1): 11-12. PMID: 20443813.

US Food and Drug Administration. Paving the way for personalized medicine: FDA’s role in a new era of medical product development [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Nov 19]; 2013. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/downloads/scienceresearch/specialtopics/personalizedmedicine/ucm372421.pdf.

Bodiroga-Vukobrat N, Rukavina D, Pavelić K, Sander GG. Personalized Medicine: A New Medical and Social Challenge. 1st ed. Switzerland: Springer; 2016.

Babaeian M, Naseri M, Kamalinejad M, Ghaffari F, Emadi F, Feizi A, et al. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2015; 17(11): e20741.

Tafazoli V, Nimrouzi M, Daneshfard B. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences 2016; 41(3): S47.

Najm Abadi M. History of Medicine in Iran and the Islamic World (Medical History in Iran). Tehran: Tehran University; 1992. [Persian]

Matin P. Ethnoplants: Ritual plants in Iranian culture and folklore. 1st ed. Tehran: Farhameh; 2013. [Persian]

Mojahedi M, Naseri M, Majdzadeh R, Keshavarz M, Ebadiani M, Nazem E, et al. A Review on Identification Mizaj (Temperament) Indices in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2012; 4(12): 37-76. [Persian]

World Health Organization. Traditional Medicine Strategy [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Nov 19]; 2013. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/ 92455/1/9789241506090_eng.pdf.

Dubick MA. Historical perspectives on the use of herbal preparations to promote health. The Journal of Nutrition 1986; 116(7): 1348-54. PMID: 3528430.

Pirbaloutl A. Medicinal plants used in Chaharmahal and Bakhtyari districts of Iran. Herba Polonica 2009; 55(2): 69-77.

Matthews HB, Lucier GW, Fisher KD. Medicinal herbs in the United States: research needs. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1999; 107(10): 773-778.

Capra F. Hidden Links: Combining the Biological, Cognitive and Social Spaces of Life in Sustainability. 1st ed. Tehran: Nashr Ney; 2007. [Persian]

Ansaripour M, Naseri M, Esfehani MM, Nabipour I, Rakhshani F. Modernity and tradition in medicine. History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2017; 9(30): 139-167. [Persian]

Nikbakht A, Kafi M, Haghighi M. Search engines for the World Wide Web: The abilities and potentials of medicinal plants production and herbal medicine in Iran. Paper presented at: VIII International People-Plant Symposium on Exploring Therapeutic Powers of Flowers, Greenery and Nature 790; June 4, 2004. Available at: http://www.actahort.org/books/790/790_ 38.htm. Accessed Nov 19, 2017.

Parsa A. Flora of Iran. Tehran: Ministry of Science and Higher Education of Iran; 1978.

Yousefi M. Flora of Iran. Tehran: Payame Noor University; 2007. [Persian]

Raza M. A role for physicians in ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006; 104(3): 297-301. PMID: 16459039.

Etkin NL, Elisabetsky E. Seeking a transdisciplinary and culturally germane science: The future of ethnopharmacology. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005; 100(1): 23-26. PMID: 16002247.

Heinrich M, Kufer J, Leonti M, Pardo-de-Santayana M. Ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology-Interdisciplinary links with the historical sciences. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006; 107(2): 157-160. PMID: 16876349.

Tabrizi L, Kouchaki A. Medicinal plants, Ecology of production and sustainable exploitation. Tehran: Tehran University; 2014. [Persian]

Pirnia H. The history of Iran from the beginning to the extinction of the Sasanians. 3rd ed. Tehran: Behzad; 2004. [Persian]

Bayani (Islami Nodooshan) Sh. History of ancient Iran (2): From the arrival of the Aryans to Iran to the end of the Achaemenids. Tehran: Organization for the Study and Compilation of Humanities Books of Universities (samt); 2010. [Persian]

Houdi M. History of Iran from the Ancient to the Victory of Islam. Translated by Girshman R. 1st ed. Tehran: Bucaramimar Hakim; 2006. [Persian]

The Center for Persian Gulf studies. History of medical knowledge in ancient Iran [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Nov 19]. Available at: http://www.persiangulfstudies.com/fa/index.asp?p=pages&id=447. [Perisan]

Ferdowsi A. Shahnameh based on Moscow printing. Tehran: Hermes; 2012. [Persian]

Neishabouri A. Mantegh-o-Tayr. 8th ed. Tehran: Sokhan; 2013. [Persian]

Nayernouri T. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols Part I. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2010; 13(1): 61-68.

Nayernouri T. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as Medical Symbols Part II Simurgh. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2010; 13(3): 255-261.

Azizi M-H. Gondishapur School of Medicine: the most important medical center in antiquity. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2008; 11(1): 116-119.

Forghani B. Medical history of Iran and the lands of the eastern caliphate. Translated by Algod CL. 3rd ed. Tehran: Amir Kabir; 2007. [Persian]

Asadpour Piranfar H, Fani K. Science in history. Translated by Bernal JD. Tehran: Amir Kabir; 2001. [Persian]

Shakourzadeh Blouri A. Ten thousand like Persian and twenty-five thousand equivalents. 1st ed. Mashhad: Astan Quds Razavi Printing and Publishing Institute; 1993. [Persian]

Kelley JL, Brown AP, Therkildsen NO, Foote AD. The life aquatic: advances in marine vertebrate genomics. Nature Reviews Genetics 2016; 17(9): 523-534. PMID: 27376488

Nelson DL, Lehninger AL, Cox MM. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry. 6th ed. USA: W.H. Freeman; 2013. p.1-41.

Sojo V, Herschy B, Whicher A, Camprubí E, Lane N. The origin of life in alkaline hydrothermal vents. Astrobiology 2016; 16(2): 181-197. PMID: 26841066.

Zeinalian M, Eshaghi M, Naji H, Marandi SM, Sharbafchi MR, Asgary S. Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine: An ancient comprehensive personalized medicine. Advanced Biomedical Research 2015; 4: 191. PMID: 26605230.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Iranian traditional medicine [Internet]. [Cited June 26 2017]; 2013. Available at: http://www.unesco.org/archives/multimedia/?pg=33&s=films_details&id=3541.

Siahpoosh MB. Six Essential Principles of Iranian Traditional Medicine for Maintaining Health from the Quran’s Point Of View. Quran Med 2012; 1(4): 101-107.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Traditional Medicine [Internet]. [Cited 2017, June 21]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Traditional_medicine.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Yunani Medicine [Internet]. [Cited 2017 June 26]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yunani_medicine.

Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia, Medicine in the medieval Islamic world [Internet]. [Cited 2017 June 26]. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Medicine_in_the_medieval_Islamic_world.

Falkenberg T. Traditional and complementary medicine policy. MDS-3: Managing Access to Medicines and Health Technologies Arlington. VA: Management Sciences for Health; 2012.

World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on developing consumer information on proper use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine [Internet]. [Cited 2017 Nov 19]; 2004. Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js5525e/.

Azizi MH, Nayernouri T, Saidi F, Modanlou HD, Tabatabaei SM, Kalantar Hormozi A, et al. A Collection of Essays on the History of Medicine in Iran (Published in the Journal of Archives of Iranian Medicine, 1998-2014). Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2014; 17(10): 733-793.

Ebrahimnejad H. Observational medicine in 19th century Iran. Gesnerus 1997; 55(1-2): 33-57. PMID: 9684536.

Nikbakht A, Kafi M. Search engines for the World Wide Web: The history of traditional medicine and herbal plants in Iran. Paper presented at: VIII International People-Plant Symposium on Exploring Therapeutic Powers of Flowers, Greenery and Nature 790; June 4, 2004. Available at: http://www.actahort.org/ books/790/790_37.htm. Accessed Nov 19, 2017.

Pourahmad J. History of medical sciences in Iran. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2008; 7(2): 93-99.

Sahranavard S, Ghafari S, Mosaddegh M. Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy. Seizure 2014; 23(5): 328-332. PMID: 24525263.

Mozaffarpur SA, Khodadust M, Shirafkan H, Yousefi M, Mirzapor M. Introducing a model for prioritization of drugs, based on Iranian Traditional Medicine references. History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2014; 6(19): 11-28. [Persian]

Kalhor R. Contribution of Persian physicians to the development of Islamic medicine. Medicinski Arhiv 1996; 51(1-2): 9-12.

Sarrafzadeh AS, Sarafian N, Von Gladiss A, Unterberg AW, Lanksch WR. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) Historical vignette. Neurosurgical Focus 2001; 11(2): 1-4.

Shoja MM, Tubbs RS. The disorder of love in the Canon of Avicenna (AD 980-1037). American Journal of Psychiatry 2007; 164(2): 228-229.

Changizi Ashtiyani S, Shamsi M, Farazi AA. Reviewing the Opinions of Avicenna, Tbilisi, and Akhaveayne on the Role of Fever in the Diagnosis of Illnesses and Comparing Them with Modern Medicine. History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2014; 6(19): 111-137. [Persian]

Afshar A. Honoring Avicenna, the great Persian physician on the world’s postage stamps. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2010; 13(5): 447-453.

Azizi MH, Nayernouri T, Azizi F. A brief history of the discovery of the circulation of blood in the human body. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2008; 11(3): 345-350.

Ghadiri MK, Gorji A. Natural remedies for impotence in medieval Persia. International Journal of Impotence Research 2004; 16(1): 80-83.

Kalvandi R, Safi Khani K, Najafi G, Babakhanlou P. Identification of medicinal plants of Hamedan province. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 2007; 23(3): 350-374.

Mir-Davoudi H, Babakhanlou P. Identification of medicinal plants of Markazi province. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 2008; 23(4): 544-559.

Modanlou HD. A tribute to Zakariya Razi (865-925 AD), an Iranian pioneer scholar. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2008; 11(6): 673-677.

Mousavi A. Medicinal plants of Zanjan province. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 2004; 20(3): 345-368.

Naseri V. Abul-Hasan al-Tabari: a review of his views and works. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2014; 17(4): 299-301.

Nayernouri T. Zakariya Razi The Iranian Physician and Scholar. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2008; 11(2): 229-234.

Sadighi J, Maftoon F, Ziai S. Herbal medicine: Knowledge, attitude and practice in Tehran. Journal of Medicinal Plants 2005; 1(13): 60-67.

Sajadi MM, Mansouri D, Sajadi M-RM. Ibn Sina and the clinical trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 2009; 150(9): 640-643.

Sartavi K, Gholamian F. Medicinal plants of Bushehr province. Iran J Med Aromat Plants 2004; 20: 213-227.

Mohamadi Farsani GH, Eshraghian M, Movahed M, Pourreza A, Siadati M, Mohammadi Farsani T, et al. A comparison study between client of traditional and modern medicine in Tehran. History of Medicine Journal (Quarterly) 2012; 4(12): 183-200. [Persian]

Rezaei A, Farzadfard A, Amirahmadi A. An Encyclopedia of Herb-Disease, a Quick Shortcut for Herbal Research: A Comprehension Based on Iranian Herbal Studies. J Biomedical Sci 2016; 6: 1-8.

Rezaei A, Farzadfard A, Alemi M, Khademi M. Medicinal plants in Iran from the perspective of University and Scientific Research. Paper presented at: the Green Gold. Tehran: 3rd National Conference; 2014. [Persian]

Chan K, Shaw D, Simmonds MS, Leon CJ, Xu Q, Lu A, et al. Good practice in reviewing and publishing studies on herbal medicine, with special emphasis on traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2012; 140(3): 469-475. PMID: 22330011.

Rivera D, Allkin R, Obón C, Alcaraz F, Verpoorte R, Heinrich M. What is in a name? The need for accurate scientific nomenclature for plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2014; 152(3): 393-402. PMID: 24374235.

Sanatizadeh H. Science in Iran and the Ancient East: Proceedings from: Bikerman, Henning, Willie Hunter, Coma, François Doblove, Wonder Verden, Kennedy, McKenzie, Mary Boys, Wales, Covell, Nouige Bau. Kerman: Ghatreh; 2005. [Persian]

Broumand B. The contribution of Iranian scientists to world civilization. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2006; 9(3): 288-290.

Nayernouri T. Iranian or Arab scholars?. Archives of Iranian Medicine (AIM) 2011; 14(2): 144-145.

Defa-a A. The role of Muslim scholars in chemistry. 1st ed. Tehran: Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies; 2011. [Persian]

Broumand B. Where were Avicenna and Rhazes from? Ann Saudi Med 2008; 28(6): 470-471. PMID: 19011324.

Zargaran A, Rahimi R. Response to: Avicenna, a Persian scientist. Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 2015; 292(3): 475-476. PMID: 25986896.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/med%20hist%20j.v9i32.20369

ارجاعات

  • در حال حاضر ارجاعی نیست.