The epidemiology of microbial agents related to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS)

Masoumeh Navidinia, Khadijeh Gholinejad, Safoura Derakhshan, Ali Rahimipour, Faranak Kazerouni, Mohammad Ali Sahraian



     Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the autoimmune diseases which affects the central nervous system and its etiology has not yet been identified. The disparity between youth and disability in reproductive ages is considered to be of particular importance for this disease and the need for research which illuminates various epidemiological, etiologic, clinical and therapeutic angles of multiple sclerosis is deeply felt. The purpose of this study is to consider the epidemiology of microbial agents related to patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). From 37 patients with multiple sclerosis according to the physician examination and McDonald criteria , serum samples were taken. Until testing, serum samples were stored in a freezer at -70 ° C. Subsequently, viral and bacterial agents were identified using specific primers and PCR method. In this study, the numbers of microbial agents were as the following: 7 retrovirus associated with MS (MRSV), 17 EBV, 8 HSV6, 11 JC virus, 10 CMV, 8 B19, 14Corona virus, 1 Helicobacter pylori, 15 Acinetobacter, 9 Borrelia burgdorferi, and 19 Chlamydia pneumonia. Identification of the relationship between different infectious agents in MS is necessary to prepare feasible data about tracing and treatment of MS related to these microorganisms that may be beneficial to clinicians to select a convenient empirical therapeutic diet in MS related to pathogens at the bedhead and can open up a new path to new therapeutic approaches.



Multiple Sclerosis patients, Microbial Agents, PCR

Full Text:




Milo R, Miller A. Revised diagnostic criteria of multiple sclerosis. Autoimmunity reviews. 2014;13(4-5):518-24.

Izadi S, Nikseresht A, Sharifian M, Sahraian MA, Hamidian Jahromi A, Aghighi M, et al. Significant increase in the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in iran in 2011. Iranian journal of medical sciences. 2014;39(2):152-3.

Compston A, Coles A. Multiple sclerosis. Lancet. 2008;372(9648):1502-17.

Weiner HL. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Arch Neurol-Chicago. 2004;61(10):1613-5.

Sturm D, Gurevitz SL, Turner A. Multiple sclerosis: a review of the disease and treatment options. The Consultant pharmacist : the journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. 2014;29(7):469-79.

Eskandarieh S, Heydarpour P, Elhami SR, Sahraian MA. Prevalence and Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Tehran, Iran. Iranian journal of public health. 2017;46(5):699-704.

Melcon MO, Correale J, Melcon CM. Is it time for a new global classification of multiple sclerosis? J Neurol Sci. 2014;344(1-2):171-81.

Heydarpour P, Khoshkish S, Abtahi S, Moradi-Lakeh M, Sahraian MA. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Middle East and North Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Neuroepidemiology. 2015;44(4):232-44.

Milo R, Kahana E. Multiple sclerosis: Geoepidemiology, genetics and the environment. Autoimmunity reviews. 2010;9(5):A387-A94.

Gale CR, Martyn CN. Migrant studies in multiple sclerosis. Progress in neurobiology. 1995;47(4-5):425-48.

Kurtzke JF. Epidemiology in multiple sclerosis: a pilgrim's progress. Brain : a journal of neurology. 2013;136(Pt 9):2904-17.

Wu C, Yosef N, Thalhamer T, Zhu C, Xiao S, Kishi Y, et al. Induction of pathogenic TH17 cells by inducible salt-sensing kinase SGK1. Nature. 2013;496(7446):513-7.

Kleinewietfeld M, Manzel A, Titze J, Kvakan H, Yosef N, Linker RA, et al. Sodium chloride drives autoimmune disease by the induction of pathogenic TH17 cells. Nature. 2013;496(7446):518-22.

Moosazadeh M, Esmaeili R, Mehdi Nasehi M, Abedi G, Afshari M, Farshidi F, et al. Prevalence of familial multiple sclerosis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Iranian journal of neurology. 2017;16(2):90-5.

Etemadifar M, Janghorbani M, Shaygannejad V, Ashtari F. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Isfahan, Iran. Neuroepidemiology. 2006;27(1):39-44.

Thompson AJ, Banwell BL, Barkhof F, Carroll WM, Coetzee T, Comi G, et al. Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria. The Lancet Neurology. 2018;17(2):162-73.

Hassan R, White LR, Stefanoff CG, de Oliveira DE, Felisbino FE, Klumb CE, et al. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) detection and typing by PCR: a contribution to diagnostic screening of EBV-positive Burkitt's lymphoma. Diagnostic pathology. 2006;1:17.

Flamand L, Gravel A, Boutolleau D, Alvarez-Lafuente R, Jacobson S, Malnati MS, et al. Multicenter comparison of PCR assays for detection of human herpesvirus 6 DNA in serum. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2008;46(8):2700-6.

Wang J, Ruan Z, Feng Y, Fu Y, Jiang Y, Wang H, et al. Species distribution of clinical Acinetobacter isolates revealed by different identification techniques. PloS one. 2014;9(8):e104882.

Wagner K, Springer B, Imkamp F, Opota O, Greub G, Keller PM. Detection of respiratory bacterial pathogens causing atypical pneumonia by multiplex Lightmix((R)) RT-PCR. International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM. 2018;308(3):317-23.

Delbue S, Sotgiu G, Fumagalli D, Valli M, Borghi E, Mancuso R, et al. A case of a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patient with four different JC virus transcriptional control region rearrangements in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, serum, and urine. Journal of neurovirology. 2005;11(1):51-7.

Daly P, Corcoran A, Mahon BP, Doyle S. High-sensitivity PCR detection of parvovirus B19 in plasma. Journal of clinical microbiology. 2002;40(6):1958-62.

Jeziorski E, Foulongne V, Ludwig C, Louhaem D, Rodiere M, Sitbon M, et al. Searching for Common Mammalian Retroviruses in Pediatric Idiopathic Diseases. Viruses. 2016;8(3):86.

Eshoo MW, Crowder CC, Rebman AW, Rounds MA, Matthews HE, Picuri JM, et al. Direct molecular detection and genotyping of Borrelia burgdorferi from whole blood of patients with early Lyme disease. PloS one. 2012;7(5):e36825.

Brola W, Sobolewski P, Flaga S, Fudala M, Szczuchniak W, Stoinski J, et al. Prevalence and incidence of multiple sclerosis in central Poland, 2010-2014. BMC neurology. 2016;16(1):134.

Ramroodi N, Sanadgol N, Ganjali Z, Niazi AA, Sarabandi V, Moghtaderi A. Monitoring of active human herpes virus 6 infection in Iranian patients with different subtypes of multiple sclerosis. Journal of pathogens. 2013;2013:194932.

Pedrini MJF, Seewann A, Bennett KA, Wood AJT, James I, Burton J, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection as a protective factor against multiple sclerosis risk in females. J Neurol Neurosur Ps. 2015;86(6):603-7.

Hughes LE, Bonell S, Natt RS, Wilson C, Tiwana H, Ebringer A, et al. Antibody responses to Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in multiple sclerosis: prospects for diagnosis using the myelin-acinetobacter-neurofilament antibody index. Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology. 2001;8(6):1181-8.

Batinac T, Petranovic D, Zamolo G, Petranovic D, Ruzic A. Lyme borreliosis and multiple sclerosis are associated with primary effusion lymphoma. Medical hypotheses. 2007;69(1):117-9.

Grigoriadis N, Hadjigeorgiou GM. Virus-mediated autoimmunity in Multiple Sclerosis. Journal of autoimmune diseases. 2006;3:1.

Randhawa P, Shapiro R, Vats A. Quantitation of DNA of polyomaviruses BK and JC in human kidneys. The Journal of infectious diseases. 2005;192(3):504-9.

Agostini HT, Ryschkewitsch CF, Baumhefner RW, Tourtellotte WW, Singer EJ, Komoly S, et al. Influence of JC virus coding region genotype on risk of multiple sclerosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Journal of neurovirology. 2000;6 Suppl 2:S101-8.

Wijburg MT, Kleerekooper I, Lissenberg-Witte BI, de Vos M, Warnke C, Uitdehaag BMJ, et al. Association of Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Lesion Volume With JC Virus Polymerase Chain Reaction Results in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Natalizumab-Treated Patients With Multiple Sclerosis. JAMA neurology. 2018.

Stewart JN, Mounir S, Talbot PJ. Human coronavirus gene expression in the brains of multiple sclerosis patients. Virology. 1992;191(1):502-5.

Kakalacheva K, Munz C, Lunemann JD. Viral triggers of multiple sclerosis. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 2011;1812(2):132-40.

Garcia-Montojo M, Dominguez-Mozo M, Arias-Leal A, Garcia-Martinez A, De las Heras V, Casanova I, et al. The DNA copy number of human endogenous retrovirus-W (MSRV-type) is increased in multiple sclerosis patients and is influenced by gender and disease severity. PloS one. 2013;8(1):e53623.

Handel AE, Williamson AJ, Disanto G, Handunnetthi L, Giovannoni G, Ramagopalan SV. An updated meta-analysis of risk of multiple sclerosis following infectious mononucleosis. PloS one. 2010;5(9).

Sanadgol N, Ramroodi N, Ahmadi GA, Komijani M, Moghtaderi A, Bouzari M, et al. Prevalence of cytomegalovirus infection and its role in total immunoglobulin pattern in Iranian patients with different subtypes of multiple sclerosis. The new microbiologica. 2011;34(3):263-74.

Sriram S, Stratton CW, Yao S, Tharp A, Ding L, Bannan JD, et al. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection of the central nervous system in multiple sclerosis. Annals of neurology. 1999;46(1):6-14.

Bagos PG, Nikolopoulos G, Ioannidis A. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection and the risk of multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis. Multiple sclerosis. 2006;12(4):397-411.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

"Journal of Paramdedical Sciences", is a publication of "School of Paramedical Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences" and "Iranian Society of Medical Proteomics".

"Journal of Paramdedical Sciences" is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.


EISSN: 2008-4978

PISSN: 2008-496X