Reviews


Utilizing Telemedicine for Managing COVID-19

Hamidreza Badeli, Azita Tangestani Nejad, Afagh Hassanzadeh Rad

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30046

Telemedicine which is defined as the provision of healthcare services by a physician at a distance, is a method that provides it in many general and specialized field of medicine even in rural areas. COVID-19 is a singular disorder with an incompletely defined medical course, mainly for youngsters and susceptible populations. In 5% of COVID-19, severe diseases which needs intensive care unit has been reported. As it spreads rapidly and regarding it contagious feature even by healthcare facilities, new models of care are needed to decreases the probability of face-to-face contact between patients and caregivers. The integration of eHealth for patients with COVID-19 is indicated as a global emergency to reduce virus transmission.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Telemedicine; Nephrology; Management. 

A Review on New Coronavirus Mechanism of Action

Mohaddeseh Golsorkhi, Yalda Ravanshad, Anoush Azarfar, Sahar Ravanshad

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30702

The new coronavirus outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV2) has resulted in more than 126750 deaths worldwide so far and billions of expenses for the governments. SARS-CoV2, similar to SARS, was transmitted from bats and spread via human to human closed contacts. The virus uses its spike protein to bind to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors on target cells to replicate. Consequently, it spreads from infected cells to contaminate other cells. The body’s first response toward the virus is to activate the innate immune system, leading to the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. In the next step, the adaptive immune system appears where B lymphocytes produce antibodies specific for the virus, and CD8+ cells kill the infected cells directly. In this article, we try to explain the virus mechanism of action and immune response in detail. Although many questions remain unanswered, we expect this review could help in vaccine and treatment progression,

 

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; Mechanism; Review.

Since early December 2019, the Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) infection has been prevalent in China and in the short term, the virus has spread to other countries. Due to the short duration of the virus pandemic, few studies have been reported on transmission routes. Identifying ways of transmitting the disease will be very effective in preventing its spread. We reviewed the methods of transmission of COVID-19 including droplets, contact, airborne, vertical transmission to the fetus of infected mothers and fecal-oral by using data of published articles or official websites up to Apr 19, 2020. The most important routes of transmission of COVID-19 were droplets and contacts. The presence of the virus in the stool, even after a negative nasopharyngeal swab, was another major cause of shedding of infection. No maternal to fetus vertical transmission was seen. Infant is at risk after birth only through droplets during breastfeeding. Based on limited data, droplets, contact, airborne and fecal transmissions are important ways of transmitting the disease and there is no evidence for intrauterine transmission of COVID-19 from infected pregnant women to their fetuses.

 

Keywords: Corona virus; COVID-19; Droplet; Contact, Airborne; Vertical transmission; Fecal.

Fluid Therapy in COVID-19 Disease: Review

Nasrin Esfandiar, Farshid Kompani

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30254

COVID-19 pandemic due to the new corona virus 2019 is an important cause global problems. This infection begins with symptoms such as fever, cough, anorexia, malaise, sore throat, and can progress to acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS) and necessitating intensive care unit (ICU) admission with an estimated mortality rate of 3%.

There is no confirmed specific antiviral treatment despite different treatment protocols. Supportive care especially fluid therapy plays a very important role in this disease. The aim of this review is to Institute effective strategies for effective fluid therapy in critically ill pediatric patients admitted to ICU.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus disease 2019; SARS-CoV-2; Fluids; Child; Intensive care.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with more than a million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and more than 130,000 deaths reported worldwide. The major morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 are large because of acute viral pneumonitis that evolves to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cardiac injury is one of the common complications of COVID-19. Furthermore, preexisting cardiovascular disease is one of the important risk factors for mortality among the patients. Evidence of cardiac involvement is common among patients hospitalized with COVID-19, but the causes of myocardial injury have not been completely explained. COVID-19 appears to be milder in children than in adults and fewer children seem to have developed severe respiratory distress. The aim of this article is a brief review of cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19 with a focus on cardiac disease in children.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus disease 2019; Cardiac complication; Cardiovascular disease; Arrhythmia; Mortality; Child.

A Short Review of Pediatric Respiratory Presentation in COVID-19

Alireza Eshghi, Nasrin Hoseiny Nejad

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30582

As the novel coronavirus infection has involved the whole world, and children are the victims as adults, and yet there are many obscure points about this global problem, this review study is aimed to evaluate its clinical and paraclinical presentations particularly in young ages.

In this review, we performed using PubMed and Google scholar database and motor of search. The meta-analysis, reviews and case series done on COVID-19 patients especially on youngsters under 18 years, were considered.

Fever and cough are prevalent in children involvement like adults. Pneumonia is the most common complication in novel coronavirus.  Children have better prognosis and severe disease in this group is rare. Bilateral patchy densities and ground-glass opacities are prevalent in chest CT scan of pediatric COVID-19. Although there are some differences between pediatric and adult COVID-19, similarities between respiratory signs and symptoms in these two groups are prominent.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-cov-2; Coronavirus; Children.

Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT) in Patients with COVID-19 Infection

Mastaneh Moghtaderi, Fatemeh Ghane Sherbaf

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30244

COVID-19, a pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, in severe cases, it may involve multiple organs including the kidneys. Kidney involvement has been reported in many cases and the most common presentation is with acute kidney injury (AKI) proteinuria and hematuria. The pathogenic mechanism of renal involvement in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is still unclear. It is supposed to result from a combination of several contributing factors, such as

dehydration, acute tubular necrosis, toxic tubular damage, cytokine storm or rhabdomyolysis. CRRT can use in multiorgan failure and associated by reduce mortality.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus disease 2019; CRRT; Child.

Prevention of the Emerging COVID-19 Infection in Dialysis Centers

Masoumeh Mohkam, Farshid Kompani

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30062

COVID-19, a disorder caused by a novel coronavirus, is a major global human threat. Patients with end stage renal disease and those undergoing dialysis constitute a susceptible population because of their less efficient immune system. Hemodialysis wards are considered as a high-risk area in the outbreak of a COVID-19 epidemic, therefore prevention plays a key role which is essential in the mitigation and containment of the COVID-19 outbreak in hemodialysis centers. We try to classify prevention guidelines concisely in this article for easier implementation.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Nephropathy; Dialysis; Prevention.

Case Reports


Nephrotic Syndrome a Rare Manifestation of COVID-19, a Case Report

Alireza Eskandarifar, Masoumeh Abedini, Saber Aabbaspor

Journal of Pediatric Nephrology, Vol. 8 No. 2 (8), 2 June 2020
https://doi.org/10.22037/jpn.v8i2.30138

One of the symptoms of glomerular damage is proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome, which can be primary or secondary. Secondary nephrotic syndrome is followed by systemic diseases, malignancies, drugs, and a variety of infectious diseases. In the recent Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, a wide range of organ involvement has been reported, including, kidneys, cardiovascular, endocrine, and nervous systems, mostly in adults and less reported in children. Our patient was an 11-year-old child with COVID-19 who presented with diabetic ketoacidosis and developed proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome, and renal failure during the course of the disease and mild respiratory symptoms appeared at the end of the illness.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus disease 2019; Nephrotic Syndrome; Child.

Special Reports


We were in the middle of COVID-19 epidemic and this is an experience of 12 hours overnight extra work shift in the hospital’s “Respiratory Emergency Triage Unit”.

A shift provided an extra-night of a shared hard experience; It was a real example of the uncountable hard nights as well as days that were already experienced by staffs involved in clinical management of COVID-19 infection, and nobody can predict how long the epidemic will last.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Epidemic; Psychiatrist; Overnight Shift

Brief Reports


Hard days have come for medical staff. Before the storm, we took some of our dearest colleagues, as well as some of our compatriots, with us and made us sad, but there is no mourning. We have to work even harder than before and fight.

 

Keywords: Medical Resident; COVID-19; Emergency Room