Introduction: The pattern of renal diseases among children is similar in most parts of the world, but with different frequencies. The pattern of renal disorders in Calabar was studied 16 years prior to the current study. This review is aimed at revealing any change in the pattern of renal disorders in Calabar 16 years after the first study.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out by analyzing case notes of children admitted to the pediatric medical ward of University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria between January 2006 and December 2016.
Results: Of 8,711 children admitted during these ten years, 216 (2.5%) had renal disorders. Acute glomerulonephritis (AGN) was the commonest renal disorder observed in 64 (29.6%) cases followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) (n=60, 27.8%) and nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n=49, 22.7%). Other diseases included nephroblastoma, chronic renal failure, acute renal failure, and posterior urethra valves. Similarly, the above findings were seen in our previous study with AGN being the commonest followed by NS and then UTI. Other findings in this study, including polycystic kidney disease, renal calculi, hemolytic uremic syndrome, HIV, and sickle cell nephropathies, were not seen in the previous study. The case fatality rate was 1.9%, which was mainly due to the complications of acute nephritis.
Conclusions: AGN still remains the commonest renal disorder in Calabar and UTI is now the second commonest renal disease. The spectrum of renal diseases in Calabar is expanding, including polycystic kidney disease, calculi, hemolytic uremic syndrome, HIV, and sickle cell nephropathies.
Keywords: Changing Pattern; Renal disorders; Calabar; Children.
Ardissino G, Dacco V, Testa S, et al. Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: data from the ItaiKid project. Pediatr. 2003;111:e382-7.
Hamed R. Childhood renal disorders in Jordan. J Nephrol. 1995;8:162-6.
Okpechi I, Swanepoel C, Duffield M, et al. Patterns of renal disease in Cape Town South Africa: a 10 year review of s single-centre renal biopsy database. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2011;26:1853-61.
Ali EM, A/Rahman AH, Karrar ZA. Pattern and outcome of renal disease in hospitalized Children in Khartoum state, Sudan. Sudan J Pediatr. 2012;12:52-59.
Elzouki AY, Amin F, Jaiswal OP. Prevalence and pattern of renal disease in eastern Libya. Arch Dis Child.1983;58:106-9.
Kari JA, Pediatric renal diseases in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. World J. Pediatr. 2012 8:217-21.
Orta-Sibu N, Lopez M, Moriyon JC, Charez JB. Renal disease in children in Venezuela, South America. PediatrNephrol. 2002;17:566-9.
Hendrickse RG, Gilles HM. The nephrotic syndrome and other renal diseases in children in Western Nigeria. East Afr Med J. 1963;40:186-201.
Onifade EU. A ten-year review of children renal admissions into the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Nig Quarterly J Hosp Med. 2003;13: 1-5.
Abdurrahman MB, Baboye FA, Aikhionbare HA. Childhood renal disorder in Nigeria. PediatrNephrol. 1990;4:88-93.
Adedoyin OT, Adesiyun OA, Mark F, Adeniyi A. Childhood renal disorders in Ilorin, north central, Nigeria. Nig Postgrad Med J. 2012;19:88-91.
Okoro BA, Okafor HU. Pattern of childhood renal disorders in Enugu. Nig J. Pediatr. 1999;26:14-18.
Michael IO, Gabriel OE, Pattern of Renal Disease in Children in Midwestern Zone of Nigeria. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl. 2003;14:539-44.
Eke FU, Eke NN. Renal disorders in Children: a Nigerian study. PediatrNephrol. 1994; 8:383-386.
Ocheke IE, Okolo SN, Bode-Thomas F, Agaba EI. Pattern of children renal diseases in Jos, Nigeria: A Preliminary Report. J Med Trop. 2010;12:52-55.
Etuk IS, Anah MU, Ochigbo SO, Eyong M. Pattern of paediatric renal diseases in inpatients in Calabar, Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2006;36:256.
Ibeneme CA, Okoronkwo N, Ezuruike E, Nwala G, Oguonu T. Pattern of childhood renal disorder in Umuahia, South East, Nigeria, Int J Med Health Dev. 2015;20(1):21-29.
Garba BI, Muhammad AS, Obasi AB, Adeniji AO. Presentation and pattern of childhood renal diseases in Gusau, North-Western Nigeria. S Afr J Child Health. 2017;11(2):96-98.
Roys HI, Stapelfon RB. Changing perspectives in children hospitalized with post-streptococcal acute glomerulonephritis. PediatrNephrol. 1990;4:585-8.
Eke FU, Nte A. Prevalence of acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in Port Harcourt. Nig J Pediatr. 1994;21:32-36.
Pelser HH. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis in hospitalized children. PediatrNephrol. 1992;6:152.