Views of Nursing Students about Reflection: A Qualitative Study

Marrzieh Moattari

Abstract


259

Background and purpose: The phenomenon of knowledge explosion has led teachers to feel the necessity of training students so that they become reflective thinkers. This issue is particularly important for nursing students who are responsible for providing care for patients. The purpose of
this study is exploration of nursing students’ views on reflection on practice.
Methods: Twenty senior nursing students participated in this study. They were asked to reflect on their clinical experiences for 10 weeks of their final clinical course. They were also asked to write their reflection in their weekly journals. The journals were studied by the researcher and appropriate
feedback was given to the student regarding their reflective writing. At the end of the clinical course, they were divided into 2 groups to participate in 2 separate focus group session and to discuss the issues regarding 9 proposed open – ended questions. The students’ responses were tape – recorded and a transcript was made and analyzed qualitatively. The data were coded and categorized. Then each category was named to elicit the related constructs.
Results: Qualitative data analysis showed that refection as a learning strategy has impact on 5 different elements of teaching learning process: caring, thinking, theory practice integration, selfregulatory mechanisms and motivation.
Conclusion: Nursing students evaluated their experience on reflection on practice as an effective and valuable strategy. They believe that reflection through 5 different but related elements make them to consolidate their learning and plan their future experiences. Four out of the five emerged
constructs in this study are very similar to elements of cyclic learning proposed by Kolb (1984) and are capable of being integrated into experiential learning cycle. Motivation can be integrated into this cycle. Based on the result of this study reflection is suggested to be integrated in Iranian nursing curriculum.
Key words: REFLECTION ON ACTION, NURSING STUDENT, EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ,EXPERIENCE

Keywords


REFLECTION ON ACTION, NURSING STUDENT, EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING ,EXPERIENCE

Full Text:

PDF

54

References


Klaassens, E. Strategies to enhance problem solving. Nurse Educator. 1992 17(3): 28-31.

Loving, Gary L. and Wilson, Janets. Infusing critical thinking into nursing curriculum through faculty development.2000. 25(2): 70-75.

Pardue, Stephanie Farley.Decision-making skills and critical ability among associate degree, diploma, baccalaureate, and Master’s prepared nurses. Journal of Nursing Education.1987. 26(?): 354-360.

O’Neill, Eileen S. and Dluhy, Nancy M.A longitudinal framework for fostering critical thinking and diagnostic reasoning. Journal of Advanced Nursing.1997. 26: 825-832.

O’Neill, Eileen S. Strengthening clinical reasoning in graduate nursing students. Nurse Educator.1999. 24(2): 11-15.

Fonteyn, M.E. and Ritter, B.J. Clinical reasoning in nursing in: clinical reasoning in the health professions. (Higgs, J. and Jones, M. Eds.) 2000. pp: 60-71 Oxford: Butterworth-Heinmann.

Irvin, S.M. Creative teaching strategies. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 1996. 27(3): 108-114.

Fergusen, Linda M. Teaching for creativity. Nurse Educator. 1992. 17(1): 16-19.

Kataoka-yahiro, Merle. and Saylor, Coleen. A critical thinking model for nursing judgment. Journal of Nursing Education. 1994. 33(8): 351-356.

Jacobs, Phyllis M. (et al). An approach to defining and operationalizing critical thinking. Journal of Nursing Education.1997. 36(1): 19-22.

Saarmann L., Freitas, L., Rapps, J. and Riegel, B. The relationship of education to critical thinking ability and value among nurses. Socialization into professional nursing. Journal of professional Nursing.1992. 8(1): 126-134.

Dewey, J. How we think. Regnery. Chicago.1933.

Schon, D. Educating the reflective practitioner. Oxford Jossey Bass. 1991.

Benner, P. From novice to expert: Power and excellence in nursing practice. California. Addison-Wesely. Palo Alto. 1984.

Boud, D. Keogh, R. and walker, D. Reflection: Turning experience into learning. Kogan Page: London. 1985.

Schon, D. Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1987.

Jarvis, P. Adult learning in the social context. London: Groom Helm.1987.

Powell, J.H. The reflective practitioner in nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1989. 14:824-832.

Mezirow, J. Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco. Jossey-Bass 1991.

Mc Caugherty D. Integrating theory and practice. Senior Nurse.1992. 12(2): 36-39.

Murphy. K. and Atkins. Reflection with a practice- led curriculum. In reflective practice in nursing. The growth of the professional practitioner (palmer A.M. Burns S. and Bulman C. Eds.) Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1994: 10-19.

Johns, C.C. Professional supervision. Journal of Nursing Management.1992. (1): 918.

Imel, Susan. Reflective practice in adult education. ERIC Digest 1992. 122. (ED 346319).

Wong, Frances K.Y. Kember, David. Ghung. Loretta Y.F. and yancerTED, Louisa. Assessing the level of student reflection from reflective Journals. Journal of Advanced Nursing.1995. 22:48-57.

Moattari, M., Abedi., H Amini., A., and Fathi Azar., Effect of Reflection on Critical Thinking Skills of Tabriz Nursing Students. Iranian Journal of Medical Education 2003. (4): 58 – 64.

Streubert, HJ. and Carpenter D. Qualitative research in nursing: advancing the humanistic imperative. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Co.2003.107.

Fonteyn, Marsha E. and Cahill, Mary. The use of clinical log to improve nursing student’s meta-cognition: a pilot study. Journal of Advanced Nursing.1998. 28(1): 149-154.

Miles M.B. & Haberman A.M. Qualitative data analysis. Sage California. 1984.

Kolb, D.A. Experiential learning. Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey Englewood Cliffs. NJ: Prentice Hall.1984.

Burnard, Philip. Nurse educators, perception of reflection and reflective practice: a report of a descriptive study 1995, 21: 1167-1174.

Green, Anita J. and Holloway, David G. Using a phenomenological research technique to examine student nurses, understandings of experiential teaching and learning: A critical review of methodological issues. Journal of advanced nursing. 1997. 26: 1013-1019.

Dossey, DM. Keegan, L. Guzzetta CE. Holistic Nursing. 3rd ed. Gaithersburg: Aspen Co. 2000.

Manley K. Bellman L. Surgical Nursing: Advancing Practice. Edingurgh: Churchill Livingstone Co. 2000.

Bound D., keogh, R. & Walker, D. Reflection: turning experience into learning. London: kogan page. 1998.

Davis,E. Reflective practice: a focus for caring, Journal of Nursing Education 1995.34(4) : 167-174.

Greenwood, J. The role of reflection in single and double loop learning. Journal of advanced nursing.1998. 27:1048-1053.

Watson, G. and Glaser, W.M. Critical thinking appraisal. Harcourt. New York: Brace Jovanich. 1964.

Mathews, C.A. and Gaul, A.L. Nursing diagnosis from the perspective of concept attainment and critical thinking. Advances in Nursing Science.1979. 2(1):17-26.

Ennis,Robert.A taxonomy of critical thinking dispositions and abilities. In: Joan Baron and Robert Sternberg (Eds.).Teaching thinking skills: theory and practice.New York: W.H.Freeman. 1987

Paul, R.W. Critical Thinking: What every person needs to know to survive in a rapidly changing world. Robert Park, CA: center for critical thinking. 1993.

Scheffer, Barbara K. and Rubenfeld, M.G. A consensus statement on critical thinking in Nursing. Journal of Nursing Education. 2000. 39(8):352-359

Severinsson, Elisabeth, I. Bridging the gap between theory and practice: a supervision program for nursing students. 1998. 27: 1269-1277

Pimental.JR.Design of Net learning: Systems based on experiential learning. JALN. 1999. 3 (2).

Vermunt, J.D. Verloop, Nico. Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction.1999. 9:257-28.

Hartley, j. Learning and studying. A research perspective. London: Rutledge. 1998..

Zimmerman, B.J. Becoming a self regulated learner: which are the key sub processes? Contemporary Educational psychology.1986. 11: 307.313.

Albard,Karen E.& Lipschultz,Rachell,E .self regulated learning in high-achieving students, relation to advanced reasoning, achievement goals, and gender. Journal of Educational Psychology 1998.90(1):94-101

Corno, L. & Mandinach, E.B. the role of cognitive engagement in classroom learning and motivation .Educational Psychologist, 1983 .18(2):88-108.

Swansburg RC. Swansburg RJ. Introduction to Management and Leadership for Nurse Managers. 3rd ed. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Co.2002.

Huber, Diane. Leadership and nursing care management. Philadelphia W.B. Saunders.Co. 1996.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/jme.v11i1,2.1019

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.