Introduction: Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common species of dermatophytes which affects superficial keratinous tissue. It is not especially virulent but it can be responsible for considerable morbidity. Although there are different therapeutic modalities to treat fungal infections, clinicians are searching for alternative treatment because of the various side effects of the present therapeutic methods. As a new procedure, Laser therapy has brought on many advantages in clinical management of dermatophytes. Possible inhibitory potential of laser irradiation on fungal colonies was investigated invitro in this study.
Methods: A total of 240 fungal plates of standard size of trichophyton rubrum colonies that had been cultured from the lesions of different patients at the mycology laboratory, were selected. Each fungal plate was assigned as control or experimental group. Experimental plates were irradiated by a laser system (low power laser or different wavelength of high power laser). The effects of different laser wavelengths and energies on isolated colonies were assessed. After laser irradiation, final size of colonies was measured on the first, the 7th and the 14th day after laser irradiation.
Results: Although low power laser irradiation did not have any inhibitory effect on fungal growth, the Q-Switched Neodymium-Doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser 532nm at 8j/cm2, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser 1064nm at 4j/cm2 to 8j/cm2 and Pulsed dye laser 595nm at 8j/cm2 to 14j/cm2 significantly inhibited growth of trichophyton rubrum in vitro.
Conclusion: Q-Switched Nd:YAG 532nm at 8j/cm2, Q-Switched Nd:YAG laser 1064nm at 4j/cm2 to 8j/cm2 and pulsed dye laser (PDL) 595nm at 8j/cm2 to 14j/cm2 can be effective to suppress trichophyton rubrum growth.
Aly R. Ecology and epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31:S21-5.
Haroon S, Samdani AJ. Epidemiology of dermatophyte infection. Comparison of clinical and mycological findings. Saudi Med J. 2005;26:680-1.
Maleszka R, Adamski Z. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of dermatophyte onychomycosis. Mycoses. 1998;41:67-72.
Peres NT, Maranhao FC, Rossi A, Martinez-Rossi NM. Dermatophytes: host-pathogen interaction and antifungal resistance. Ana Bras Dermatol. 2010;85:657-67.
Seebacher C, Bouchara JP, Mignon B. Updates on the epidemiology of dermatophyte infections. Mycopathologia. 2008;166:335-52.
Bassiri-Jahromi S, Khaksari AA. Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in Tehran, Iran, from 2000 to 2005. Indian J Dermatology, Venereol Leprol. 2009;75:142-7.
Rassai S, Feily A, Sina N, Derakhshanmehr F. Some epidemiological aspects of dermatophyte infections in Southwest Iran. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat : ADC. 2011;19:13-5.
Thappa DM. Current treatment of onychomycosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:373-6.
Finch JJ, Warshaw EM. Toenail onychomycosis: current and future treatment options. Dermatol Ther. 2007;20:31-46.
Smijs TG, Pavel S. The susceptibility of dermatophytes to photodynamic treatment with special focus on Trichophyton rubrum. Photochem Photobiol. 2011;87:2-13.
Prindeze NJ, Moffatt LT, Shupp JW. Mechanisms of action for light therapy: a review of molecular interactions. Exp Biol Med. 2012;237:1241-8.
Calzavara-Pinton PG, Venturini M, Sala R. A comprehensive overview of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of superficial fungal infections of the skin. J Photochem Photobiol B. 2005;78(1):1-6.
Vural E, Winfield HL, Shingleton AW, Horn TD, Shafirstein G. The effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Lasers Med Sci. 2008;23:349-53.
Manevitch Z, Lev D, Hochberg M, Palhan M, Lewis A, Enk CD. Direct antifungal effect of femtosecond laser on Trichophyton rubrum onychomycosis. Photochem Photobiol. 2010;86(2):476-9.
Xu ZL, Xu J, Zhuo FL, Wang L, Xu W, Xu Y, et al. Effects of laser irradiation on Trichophyton rubrum growth and ultrastructure. Chin Med J. 2012;125:3697-700.
Hochman LG. Laser treatment of onychomycosis using a novel 0.65-millisecond pulsed Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther.. 2011;13:2-5.
Hainer BL. Dermatophyte infections. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67:101-8.
Laser treatment of onychomycosis. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2013;55:15.
Amorim JC, Soares BM, Alves OA, Ferreira MV, Sousa GR, Silveira Lde B, et al. Phototoxic action of light emitting diode in the in vitro viability of Trichophyton rubrum. Ana Bras Dermatol. 2012;87:250-5.
Smijs TG, Mulder AA, Pavel S, Onderwater JJ, Koerten HK, Bouwstra JA. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study. Med Mycol. 2008;46:315-25.
Noguchi H, Miyata K, Sugita T, Hiruma M, Hiruma M. Treatment of onychomycosis using a 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. Med Mycol J. 2013;54:333-9.
Ledon JA, Savas J, Franca K, Chacon A, Nouri K. Laser and light therapy for onychomycosis: a systematic review. Lasers Med Sci. 2014;29:823-9.