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The Effect of Quorum-Sensing and Efflux Pumps Interactions in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Against Photooxidative Stress

Parizad Rezaie, Maryam Pourhajibagher, Nasim Chiniforush, Nava Hosseini, Abbas Bahador
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Abstract

Resistant infections essentially cause mortality in a burn unit. Several bacteria contribute to burn infections; among these, Pseudomonas aeruginosa majorly contributes to these infections revealing significant drug resistance. Similar to other bacteria, P. aeruginosa reveals various mechanisms to attain highest pathogenicity and resistance; among these, efflux pumps and quorum sensing are crucial. Quorum sensing enables effective communication between bacteria and synchronizes their gene expression resulting in optimum effect of the secreted proteins; alternatively, efflux pumps increase the bacterial resistance by pumping out the antimicrobial factors as well as the QS signals and precursors. Of recent, increasing episodes of drug resistance led to new findings and approaches for killing pathogenic bacteria without inducing the drug-resistant species. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), considered as an adjuvant and innovative method for conventional antibiotic therapy, is a photochemical reaction that includes visible light, oxygen, and a photosensitizer (PS). In this therapy, after exposure to visible light, the PS generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are bacteriostatic or bactericidal. Furthermore, this oxidative stress can disrupt the coordination of gene expression and alter the bacterial behavior. Considering the fact that the adaption and several gene expression patterns of microorganisms within the biofilm make them notably resistant to the recent antimicrobial treatments, this study aimed to emphasize the relationship between the efflux pump and QS under oxidative stress and their role in P. aeruginosa’s reaction to PDT.

Keywords

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Quorum sensing

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/jlms.v9i3.18791