Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia <p><strong style="font-style: italic;">Journal of Cellular and Molecular Anesthesia (JCMA)</strong> is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal which pays particular attention to translational medicine, especially focusing on disease-oriented basic research in cellular and molecular aspects of anesthesiology; including those laboratory investigations, bench to bedside studies, or clinical researches which yield new finding in molecular and cellular anesthesia that improves our diagnosis and therapeutics in clinical anesthesia. Researches about Personalized Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine is one of the main targerts of JCMA.</p> Anesthesiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences en-US Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2476-5120 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a title="Creativecommons" href="" target="_blank">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>). </p> COVID-19: Apocalypse Now? Ali Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 1 2 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29845 COVID-19 in pediatric patients: A case series <p>The COVID-19 pandemic outbreak has affected the global health system with an urgent need for more sophisticated studies. One of the prominent aspects of COVID-19 is the picture of the disease in pediatric population. Our case series study includes 4 Babyboy patients in a referral children's hospital with different clinical outcomes.</p> Ahmad Eghbali Sedighe Shokrollahi Nastaran Sadat Mahdavi Seyed Alireza Mahdavi Ali Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 3 5 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29690 Common imaging patterns of COVID-19 on spiral chest CT scan: a diagnostic approach for pulmonary involvement in ICU patients <p class="Body">COVID-19 is a newly emerged pandemic with great worldwide challenges. Imaging features are one of the most important aspects of the disease, both for screening, diagnosis, treatment assessment and follow-up. Here we review the imaging aspects of COVID-19 with special focus on Critical Care patients.</p> Taraneh Faghihi Langroudi Mehdi Khazaei Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 6 15 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29721 The role of Artificial Intelligence in Management of Critical COVID-19 patients <p>Background: the COVID-19 outbreak has created a great challenge for the healthcare system worldwide. One of the most critical points of this challenge is the management of COVID-19 patients needing acute and/or critical respiratory care. This study was performed to discover an AI based model to improve the critical care of the COVID-19 patients.<br />Material and methods: in a descriptive study, all the published research available in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and other databases were retrieved. Based on these studies, a three stage model of input, process and output was created.<br />Results: the three stage model of AI application in ICU was completed. Input included Clinical, Paraclinical, Personalized Medicine (OMICS) and Epidemiologic data. The process included Artificial Intelligence (i.e. Artificial Neural Network, Machine Learning, Deep Learning and Expert Systems). The output which was ICU Decision Making included Diagnosis, Treatment, Risk Stratification, Prognosis and Management.<br />Conclusion: the efforts of the healthcare system to defeat COVID-19 could be supported by an AI-based decision-making system which would double them up and help manage these patients much more efficiently, especially those in COVID-19 ICU</p> Shahabedin Rahmatizadeh Saeideh Valizadeh-Haghi Ali Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 16 22 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29752 Insights into the SARS-CoV2 Outbreak; the Great Global Challenge: A Mini Review <p>The emergence of COVID-19 outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, was reported in Wuhan, Hubei, China in December 2019, and it spread rapidly across the world, resulting in the World Health Organization announcing a global health emergency on 30 January 2020. The first death caused by it in Iran was reported in February 2020 and spread rapidly across the country. The novel virus responsible for sever complications even death in all age groups, especially in older adults and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions. Researchers around the world are studying to identify the novel virus, SARS-CoV2, with the aim of preventing its dissemination and to reduce its complications. Here, we discuss the available information<strong> </strong>regarding the SARS-CoV2 Outbreak and disease caused as a mini-review.</p> Behzad Pourhossein Ali Dabbagh Maryam Fazeli Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 23 26 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29718 Supplemental Oxygen therapy and Non-Invasive Ventilation in Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) <p>The world has experienced a pandemic due to novel Severe Acute Respiratory Disease Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV2) since December 2019. The clinical spectrum of the disease known as Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is so much wide, starting from an asymptomatic state to paucisymptomatic clinical presentation, pneumonia, respiratory failure to even death. Supplemental oxygen therapy is essential in managing COVID-19. Also, there is sparse evidence regarding use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pandemics like SARS-CoV-2. This study reviews the currently available methods for respiratory support in COVID-19 with a discussion about using these modalieties in the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> Soudeh Tabashi Alireza Mirkheshti Mastaneh Dahi Dariush Abtahi Maryam Vosoughian Shahram Sayyadi Mohammadreza Moshari Elham Memary Shideh Dabir Sohrab Salimi Ardeshir Tajbakhsh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 27 31 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29689 Review of therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19 <p>In late December 2019, a cluster of unexplained pneumonia cases has been reported in Wuhan, China, named coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19) which has been spreading in 204 countries. In this review, the mains pharmaceutical option quoted previously and especially available for ICU patients are reviewed.</p> Shadi Ziaie Mehran Koucheck MirMohammad Miri Sara Salarian Seyedpouzhia Shojaei Mehrdad Haghighi Mohammad Sistanizad Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 32 36 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29760 The immunologic basis of COVID-19: a clinical approach <p>The novel Severe Acute Respiratory Disease Corona Virus (SARS-CoV2) has leaded to a global infection and a pandemic afterwards. This pandemic is one of the greatest global challenges for the health system.</p><p>In this review, the immunologic basis of the human body response after infection with SARS-CoV2 has been reviewed with discussions on both innate and adaptive immunity. Due to the relatively short time after appearance of the problem, the currently available evidence exclusively dealing with SARS-CoV2 and the SARS-CoV2 disease (COVID-19) are scant; especially in the field of cellular and molecular medicine; however, previous studies especially focusing on SARS-CoV and MERS are available. A full review on these topics is presented here.</p>At the final part of the manuscript, involvement of the main human organs with COVID-19 is briefed. Samira Rajaei Ali Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 37 42 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29778 Twin pregnant woman with COVID-19: a case report <p>A Case of pregnant woman (G2Ab1, twin pregnancy with microinjection, Gestational Age 23 weeks and 3 days) referred to our center with a complaints of fever and dry cough and dyspnea. She was admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19. During the hospitalization, O2 saturation progressively decreased, which led to patient get intubate. Gradual recovery with treatment occurred and the patient was extubed. Unfortunately, she was intubated again due to decreased O2 saturation, 5 days later. Liver enzymes increased, then both fetuses died intrauterine, the cardiac output then declined to 10% and the mother died within hours.</p> SeyedPouzhia Shojaei Mehran Kouchek Mir Mohammad Miri Sara Salarian Mohammad Sistanizad Shideh Ariana Maryamsadat Hosseini Simindokht Shoaee Mehrdad Haghighi Mahmood Nabavi Mohammad Farahbakhsh Padideh Ansar Mahsaalsadat Mirhadi Fahimeh Hadavand Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 43 46 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29688 How to manage perioperative patient flow during COVID-19 pandemic: a narrative review The COVID-19 pandemic due to the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has affected many aspects of the health system. One of those groups that are at very high risk are those health care personnel (including physicians, nurses, and managerial personnel) delivering the perioperative care; including preoperative care, intraoperative care and postoperative care. This is the same challenge for the patients who need to be admitted in hospital while they are feared of being affected by SARS-CoV2. This review considers the safety precautions for perioperative protection of healthcare personnel and patients based on the available evidence. Ghasem Janbabai Sajjad Razavi Ali Dabbagh Copyright (c) 2020 Journal of Cellular & Molecular Anesthesia 2020-04-09 2020-04-09 5 1 47 56 10.22037/jcma.v5i1.29789