A Review of 2625 IsolatedHydrocele Casesin Children

Ahmet Atıcı, Derya Erdoğan, İbrahim Karaman, Ayşe Karaman, Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu, Haşim Ata Maden, İsmet Faruk Özgüner, Engin Yılmaz, Çağatay Evrim Afşarlar




In this study, we aimed to define the spontaneous regression rate in the types of  hydroceles, the regression age, the timing of surgery, and the optimal treatment approaches for each hydrocele type in cases with isolated hydroceles in children.


This retrospective cohortstudy included 2625 patients reviewed between January 2004 and December 2012. The hydroceles were classified as: ‘non-communicating hydroceles’, ‘communicating hydroceles’, ‘spermatic cord hydroceles’ and ‘abdomino-scrotal hydroceles’(ASH). The patients were divided into two groups with regard to their ages at the diagnosis as follows: those presenting in the newborn period and before 24 months of age (Younger– Group 1)and those presenting after 24 months of age (Older – Group 2).Determining the type of isolated hydrocele, the decision making for follow-up or surgery, and the follow-up period were conducted by 7 attending pediatric surgeons and 6 residents.



In Group 1, 93% of 1086 non-communicating hydroceles, 40% of 158 cord hydroceles, and 15% of 34 communicating hydroceles resolved during the follow-up, and the remaining patients with each type of hydrocele had undergone surgery. In Group 2, 8.7% of 183 non-communicating hydroceles resolved during the follow-up.



The primary treatment of patients with isolated hydrocele should be decided regarding the type of hydrocele, along with age at admission, and accordingly, conservative or surgical treatment should be considered. 


Isolated Hydrocele, Children, Surgery

Full Text:




Erdoğan D, Karaman İ, Aslan MK, et al. Analysis of 3776 pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele cases in a tertiary center. J pediatr Surg 2013; 48(6):1767-1772.

Coran, A. G, Adzick N.S, Krummel T.M, et al. Pediatricsurgery. 2012, 3-Volume Set, 7th Edition. ElsevierHealthSciences.

Hall NJ, Ron O, Eaton S, et al. Surgery for hydrocele in children-an avoidable excess? J Pediatr Surg 2011;46(12):2401-2405.

Grosfeld JL. Inguinal Hernias and Hydroceles. In: J.L. Grosfeld and D.R. Cooney, editors. Pediatric Surgery, Philadelphia, PA, Elsevier; 2006.p.1172-1192.

Osifo OD, Osaigbovo EO. Congenital hydrocele: prevalence and outcome among male children who underwent neonatal circumcision in Benin City, Nigeria. J Pediatr Urol 2008;4(3):178-182.

Qureshi Z, Ahmed S, Haider IZ, et al. Primary hydrocoeles in infants and children.J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2011;23(4):64-65.

Peng Y, Li C, Lin W, et al. Application of a Laparoscopic, Single-port, Double-needle Technique for Pediatric Hydroceles With Multiple Peritoneal Folds: A Trial From a Single-center 5-Year Experience.Urology 2015;85(6):1466-1470

Lau ST, Lee YH, Caty MG. Current management of hernias and hydroceles. Seminars in pediatric surgery 2007; 16(1): 50-57.

Clarke S. Pediatric inguinal hernia and hydrocele: an evidence-based review in the era of minimal access surgery.Journal of laparoendoscopic& advanced surgical techniques 2010; 20(3):305-309.

IPEG Guidelines for Inguinal Hernia and Hydrocele. J LaparoendoscAdvSurg Tech A. 2010; 20(2):10-14.

Tekgül S, Riedmiller H, Dogan HS, Gerharsz E, Hoebeke P, Kocvara R, et al. Guidelines on. Update 2008.

Antonoff MB, Kreykes NS, Saltzman DA, Acton RD. American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Surgery hernia survey revisited. J Pediatr Surg 2005; 40(6):1009-1014.

Koski ME, Makari JH, Adams MC, et al. Infant communicating hydroceles--do they need immediate repair or might some clinically resolve? J Pediatr Surg 2010; 45(3):590-593.

Alp BF, Irkilata HC, Kibar Y, et al. Comparison of the inguinal and scrotal approaches for the treatment of communicating hydrocele in children.Kaohsiung J MedSci 2014;30(4):200-205.

Wang DJ, Qiu JG, Fang YQ, et al. Laparoscopic extraperitoneal repair of symptomatic hydrocele in children: a single-center experience with 73 surgeries. J Endourol. 2011;25(7):1221-1225

Ein SH, Njere I, Ein A. Six thousand three hundred sixty-one pediatric inguinal hernias: a 35-year review. J Pediatr Surg 2006;41(5):980-986.

Rathaus V, Konen O, Shapiro M, et al. Ultrasound features of spermatic cord hydrocele in children. Br J Radiol 2001;74(885):818-820.

Christensen T, Cartwrigh PC, Devries C, et al. New onset of hydroceles in boys over 1 year of age. Int J Urol 2006;13(11):1425-1427.

Celayir A.C, Akyüz Ü, Çiftlik H, et al. A critical observation about the pathogenesis of abdominoscrotal hydrocele. J Pediatr Surg 2001;36(7):1082-1084.

Yigitler C, Avcı A, Tahmaz Lutfi, et al. Giant unilateral abdominoscrotal hydrocele in association with crossed testicular ectopia. Urology 2006;67(1):199.e13-199.e15.

Cuervo JL, Ibarra H, Molina M. Abdominoscrotal hydrocele: its particular characteristics. J Pediatr Surg. 2009;44(9):1766-1770.

Upadhyay V, Abubacker M, Teele R. Abdominoscrotal hydrocele--is there a place for conservative management? Eur J Pediatr Surg 2006;16(4):282-284.

Czerwińska K, Brzewski M, Majkowska Z, et al. The abdominoscrotal hydrocele in the infant - case report.Pol J Radiol 2014;15(79):108-11

Beiko DT, Kim D, Morales A. Aspiration and sclerotherapy versus hydrocelectomy for treatment of hydroceles.Urology 2003;61(4):708-712.

Kim JK, Shin JH, Lim JS. A 10-Year Retrospective Study of the Operative Treatment Results of Adult Type Hydrocele.Korean Journal of Urology 2008;49(1):82-87.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/irjps.v3i1.17151


  • There are currently no refbacks.