• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

A Study of Domestic Violence against Women: A Qualitative Meta-Synthesis

L Ostadhashemi, M Khalvati, M Seyedsalehi, MA Emamhadi




Background: Domestic violence is the most popular form of violence against women. Phenomenon of In the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women-1993 (DEVAW), was introduced as a barrier for reaching equality, development and peace. The objective of this research was to study individuals’ lived experiences, especially the experiences of women exposed to violence in Iran.

Methods: This research is a descriptive research which employs a systemic review. The statistical population consists of all the qualitative studies conducted in Iran to consider the physical violence against women. To collect the data, Persian keywords for violence against women, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence against spouse and spouses who were beaten were searched in the Iranian online databases including SID, Irandocs, Iranmedex, Iranpsych, and Magiran. As the result of this search, 27 qualitative studies were selected which were exactly dedicated to the domestic violence from the viewpoints of men, women and experts. Then, the repetitions and the studies which were conducted before 2001 were excluded. After close reading of all the researches 10 of them were eventually selected.

Results: The most reported items after studying the individuals’ lived experiences of physical violence against women in Iran included patriarchy, drug abuse, inappropriate sociability, lack of men’s mental stability, deficiency in communicative skills between the couples and ignorance of each other’s mental and sexual needs. The most reported strategies also encompass inactive and inefficient approaches such as keeping quiet but preoccupied with the problem, filing complaints, not being on speaking terms for a long while, revenge and deprivation of intercourse.

Conclusion: This social issue should be also studied like all other social issues as a multi-dimensional phenomenon in the social context.


Domestic violence, Qualitative meta-synthesis, Systematic review, Violence against women


United Nation (UN), Declaration on The Elimination of Violence Against Women. New York, General Assembly Resolution 48/104 of December 1993. (Resolution No. A/RES/48/104)

Mills CW. The Sociological Imagination. Oxford University Press.1959;52-6.

Kiss L, Schraiber LB, Heise L, Zimmerman C, Gouveia N, Watts C. Gender-based violence and socioeconomic inequalities: does living in more deprived neighbor hoods increase women’s risk of intimate partner violence? SocSci Med. 2012;74(8):1172-9.

Amoakohene M L. Violence against women in Ghana: a look at women's perceptions and review of policy and social responses, Social Sciences & Medicine. 2004;59:2373-858.

Davoudi F, Rasoolian M, Ahmadzad-Asl M, Nojoomi M. Preservative Elements of Domestic Physical Violence Agaisnt Women in East-Mediterranean Countries: a systematic review and metasynthesis. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2012;4:261-75.

World Bank. Gender-based violence, health and the role of the health sector at a glance 2011. Washington DC, World Bank: 2011. Available from: http://go.worldbank. org/C1UQRGBCE0

Plichta SB, Falik M. Prevalence of violence and its implications for women’s health: Women Health Iss. 2001;11(3):244-58.

Ellsberg M, Jansen HAFM, Heise L, Watts CH, Garcia-Moreno C. Intimate partner violence and women’s physical and mental health in the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence: An observational study. Lancet. 2008;47-54.

Amid H. Amid’s Dictionary. Second Edition. Tehran: Mohammad-Hassan Elmi’s Publications. 1996;85.

Mirsadogh T. The Dictionary of Sociology. Ed. Sarukhani B. Tehran: Soroush Publications. 2000;2.

United Nation (UN).Elimination of Violence Against Women. New York, General Assembly Resolution 48/104 of December 2011.

E’zazi S. Social Structure and Violence Against Women. Journal of Social Welfare.2004; 96: 14-59.

Taheri S, Jafar-Navaei M. A Qualitative Examination of Physical Violence Against Women in Khodabandeh Town of Zanjan. Women Studies Quarterly. 3:32-43.

Saberian M, Atashnafs E, Behnam B, Haghighat. A Survey of the Causative Elements in the Occurrence of Domestic Violence and Opposing Methods According to Women Referring to Medical and Health Centers of Semnan Town. Forensic Pathology Quarterly. 2003;15:30-4.

Panaghi L, Ghahari Sh, Yousefi H. Violence against Spouse and Effective Causes from the Victims’ viewpoint: a qualitative study. Family Studies Quarterly. 2006;7:257-67.

Ahmadi B, Farzadi F, Alimohammadian M. The Viewpoints of Tehrani Men, Women and Experts Regarding Domestic Violence against Women in Iran: A qualitative research. 2006;6(2):67-81.

Yazdkhasti B, Shirazi H. Patriarchal Values and Violence against Women. Women Studies Quarterly. 2008;3:55-79.

Fakhari A, Akhbari SM, Ranjbar F. A Qualitative Survey of the Elements, Processes and Consequences of Violence in Families: Based on woemn’s experiences. Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. 2011;3:88-95.

SadeghiFasaei S. Domestic Violence and Women’s Strategies to Cope with it. Iranian Journal of social Problems. 2010;1:1-36.

Rahimi H. Qualitative Examination of Domestic Violence among Women Referring to Police Stations of Buyer-Ahmad Town. Electronic Magazine of State Prisons. 2011 Organization.

Raeisi S. Qualitative Examination of Violence against Women Among Baluch Women of Iranshahr: Field Analysis Method, MA Thesis: Bahonar University of Kerman. 2012:156-8.

Jalilvand M, Nikmanesh Z, Kazemi Y, Emamhadi MA. Smokeless tobacco use among university students: A cross-sectional study in Iran, Sistan Baloochestan province, 2008. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (IJPBS). 2010;4(1):23-9.

Emamhadi MA, Jalilvand M, Hadian M. Comparing evaluation of intelligence in women victim of violence with control group. Scientific Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2009;15(53):14-20.

Akmatov MK, Mikolajczyk RT, Labeeb S, Dhaher E, Khan MM. Factors associated with wife beating inEgypt: Analysis of two surveys (1995 and 2005). BMCWomen`s Health. 2008; 8:15.

Bakr IM, Ismail NA. Domestic violence among women attending out-patient clinics in Ain Shams University Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc. 2005;80(5-6):629-50.

Ghazizadeh A. Domestic violence: A cross-sectional study in an Iranian city. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11(5-6):880-7.

Faramarzi M, Esmailzadeh S, Mosavi S. A comparison of abused and non-abused women's definitions of domestic violence and attitudes to acceptance of male dominance.Eur J ObstetGynecolReprod Biol. 2005;122(2):225-31.

Faramarzi M, Esmailzadeh S, Mosavi S. Prevalenceand determinants of intimate partner violence in BabolCityIslamicRepublic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11(5-6):870-9.

Mohammadhosseini E, Sahraean L, Bahrami T. Domestic abuse before, during and after pregnancy in Jahrom Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16(7):752-8.

Jeyaseelan L, Sadowski LS, Kumar S, Hassan F, Ramiro L, Vizcarra B. World studies of abuse in the family environment-risk factors for physical intimate partner violence. Inj Control SafPromot. 2004;11(2):117-24.

Jamshidi F, Sadighi B, Aghakhani K, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Emamhadi MA. Brain computed tomographic scan findings in acute opium overdose patients. The American journal of emergency medicine. 2013;31(1):50-3

Ahmed AM, Elmardi AE. A study of domestic violence among women attending a medical centre in Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11(1-2):164-74.

Tashkandi A, Rasheed FP. Wife abuse: A hidden problem. A study among Saudi women attending PHC centres. East Mediterr Health J. 2009;15(5):1242-53.

Klevens J, Bangdiwala SI. Next steps in cross-cultural research on intimate partner violence. Inj Control Saf Promot. 2004;11(2):139-40.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ijmtfm.v5i3(Summer).7690