Epidemiology of Scorpion Envenoming in the Prefecture of Figuig, Morocco
International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Forensic Medicine,
Vol. 9 No. 1 (2019),
3 March 2019
Background: Scorpion stings are a public health problem in Morocco. Many studies have been conducted in various geographic locations to explore this problem. In this context, this is the first study aims to provide an epidemiological analysis of scorpion stings in the prefecture of Figuig, Morocco between 2009 and 2017.
Methods: This is a retrospective study providing an epidemiological analysis of scorpion stings over 9 years. The data comprised the number of cases collected each month, their origin, and clinical outcomes. The data were transferred to Microsoft Office Excel and the statistical analysis describing means, standard deviations and frequencies, was performed using the program Epi info 6.
Results: Over 9 years, there have been 1485 accidents recorded with sex ratio (M:F) as 1:1. The average incidence recorded is 127.62 per 100000 inhabitants per year. The stings were more frequent in summer months, particularly July and August, and 21.14% of the cases were children under 15 years. Of all cases, 73.4% did not need any medication, 3.03% needed hospitalization to treat specific symptoms and medical conditions, and 2.89% needed treatment for systemic effects of the envenomation. About 94.81% of all patients presented local symptoms and only 1.41% have their condition evolved into advanced symptoms and general manifestations.
Conclusion: Scorpion stings are a public health problem in the prefecture of Figuig. The present study provided analysis in order to integrate the national strategy to fight the scorpion stings in Morocco.
How to Cite
Lakhkar BB, Patil MM, Patil SV. Scorpion sting envenomation. Journal of Nepal Paediatric Society. 2016; 36(3):284-7.[DOI:10.3126/jnps.v36i3.14875]
Adawi SH, Adawi SH, Adawi DH. The Scorpion sting: Epidemiology, clinical symptoms, treatment, surveillance and reporting obstacles in the Salfit district (West Bank) (2014-2015). International Journal of Tropical Disease & Health. 2016; 14(3):1-10. [DOI:10.9734/IJTDH/2016/23351]
Kassiri H, Kassiri E, Veys-Behbahani R, Kassiri A. Epidemiological survey on scorpionism in Gotvand County, Southwestern Iran: An analysis of 1 067 patients. Journal of Acute Disease. 2014; 3(4):314-9. [DOI:10.1016/S2221-6189(14)60067-6]
El Ougir R, Semlali I, Benlarabi S, Souleymani-Bencheikh R. [Scorpion stings and envenomations in Morocco from 2001 to 2008 (French)]. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health. 2009; 57(1):S24. [DOI:10.1016/j.respe.2009.02.083]
Aboumaâd B, Lahssaini M, Tiger A, Benhassain SM. Clinical comparison of scorpion envenomation by Androctonus mauritanicus and Buthus occitanus in children. Toxicon. 2014; 90:337-43. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2014.09.001] [PMID]
Kingdom of Morocco. Ministry of the Interior Province of Figuig. [Monograph of the Province of Figuig (French)] [Internet]. 2005 [Updated 2005 May 1]. Available from: http://www.oriental.ma/upload/MoDUle_1/File_1_99.pdf
Office of the High Commissioner for the Plan of Morocco. [Note on the first results of the General Census of Population and Housing 2014 (French)] [Internet]. 2014 [Access :19 October 2018]. Available at: https://www.rgph2014.hcp.ma/Note-sur-lespremiers-resultats-du-Recensement-General-de-la-Population-et-de-l-Habitat-2014_a369.html
Kingdom of Morocco. High Commission for Planning, Center for Studies and Demographic Research [Projections of the population of Morocco by place of residence 2005-20304 (French)]. [Internet]. 2007 [Updated 2007 December 7]. Available at: http://www.rofoof.cnd.hcp.ma/index.php?lvl=notice_display&id=1077
Lourenço WR. The evolution and distribution of noxious species of scorpions (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases. 2018; 24(1):1-12. [DOI:10.1186/s40409-017-0138-3] [PMID]
El Hidan MA, Touloun O, Boumezzough A. Spatial relationship between environmental factors and scorpion distribution in Morocco. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2017; 5(3):674-8.
Cupo P. Clinical update on scorpion envenoming. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical. 2015; 48(6):642-9. [DOI:10.1590/0037-8682-0237-2015] [PMID]
El Hidan MA, Touloun O, El Oufir R, Boumezzough A. Epidemiological and spatial analysis of scorpion stings in two regions of Morocco: Marrakesh-tensift-Al haouz and souss-massa-draa. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2016; 4:299-304.[DOI:10.12980/jclm.4.2016J6-22]
Soulaymani Bencheikh R, Idrissi M, Tamim O, Semlali I, Mokhtari A, Tayebi M, et al. Scorpion stings in one province of Morocco: Epidemiological, clinical and prognosis aspects. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 2007; 13(2):462-71. [DOI:10.1590/S1678-91992007000200005]
Selmane S, Benferhat L, L’Hadj M, Zhu H. Scorpionism in Sidi Okba, Algeria: A cross-sectional study of 2016 stung patients between 2014 and 2015. Tropical Biomedicine. 2017; 34(2):425-32.
Isazadehfar KH, Eslami L, Entezariasl M. [Epidemiology of Scorpionism in southwest, Iran, 2008 (Persian)]. Iranian Journal of Epidemiology. 2013; 8(4):54-60.
Reckziegel GC, Pinto VL. Scorpionism in Brazil in the years 2000 to 2012. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 2014; 20(1):46-8. [DOI:10.1186/1678-9199-20-46]
El Hidan MA, Touloun O, Boumezzough A. An epidemiological study on scorpion envenomation in the Zagora oases (Morocco). Journal of Coastal Life Medicine. 2015; 3(9):704-7. [DOI: 10.12980/jclm.3.2015j5-86]
Chakroun-Walha O, Karray R, Jerbi M, Nasri A, Issaoui F, Amine BR, et al. Update on the epidemiology of scorpion envenomation in the South of Tunisia. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2018; 29(1):29-35. [DOI: 10.1016/j.wem.2017.09.011] [PMID]
Amr ZS, Al Zou’bi R, Abdo N, Hani RB. Scorpion stings in Jordan: An update. Wilderness & Environmental Medicine. 2017; 28(3):207-12. [DOI:10.1016/j.wem.2017.05.003] [PMID]
National Institute of Statistics (Madagascar). General census of population and housing 2014. Madagascar: National Institute of Statistics; 1996.
Charrab N, Bencheikh RS, Mokhtari A, Semlali I, El Oufir R, Soulaymani A. The epidemiological situation of scorpion stings in Beni Mellal Province (Morocco). Santé Publique. 2009; 21(4):393-401. [DOI:10.3917/spub.094.0393]
Selmane S, Benferhat L, L'Hadj M, Zhu H. Modelling the scorpion stings using surveillance data in El Bayadh Province, Algeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2016; 6(12):961-8. [DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(16)61165-9]
Nejati J, Saghafipour A, Mozaffari E, Keyhani A, Jesri N. Scorpions and scorpionism in Iran’s central desert. Acta tropica. 2017; 166:293-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.12.003] [PMID]
Laïd Y, Boutekdjiret L, Oudjehane R, Laraba-Djebari F, Hellal H, Guerinik M, et al. Incidence and severity of scorpion stings in Algeria. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. 2012; 18(4):399-410. [DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000400008]
Charrab N, Soulaymani A, Semlali I, Mokhtari A, El Oufir R, Bencheikh RS. [The epidemiological and clinical characteristics of scorpion envenomations in the province of Beni Mellal (Morocco) (French)]. Annals of Analytical Toxicology. 2009; 21(3):143-6.
Dabo A, Golou G, Traoré MS, Diarra N, Goyffon M, Doumbo O. Scorpion envenoming in the north of Mali (West Africa): Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects. Toxicon. 2011; 58(2):154-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.05.004] [PMID]
- Abstract Viewed: 193 times
- PDF Downloaded: 79 times