Background: Because opium is mixed with lead to increase its weight, the prevalence of lead poisoning is high among opium consumers. Hence, measurement of serum lead level in these people is important for the prevention or early treatment of lead poisoning. To evaluate the blood lead level in opium consumers.
Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, a total of 214 opium consumers with lead poisoning referred to Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016, were evaluated. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Covanta Energy, GB) was used to measure the lead level of the blood samples.
Results: The mean (SD) age of the participants was 43.11(18.14) year, also their average (SD) blood lead level was 139.5(48.5) µg/dL. No relationship was found between the blood lead level and age in the participants (P=0.11). The number of male participants was significantly higher than females in this study (92.5% vs. 7.5%). Also about 129(60.3%) participants consumed opium orally and 85(39.7%) ones used opium by inhalation.
Conclusion: The blood lead level is higher than the acceptable limit in opium addicts, and the risk of lead poisoning should be considered among them, especially in oral consumers.
Fischbein A. Occupational and environmental exposure to lead. In: Rom WN, ed. Environmental and Occupational Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven; 1998.p.973.
Karrari P, Mehrpour O, Abdollahi M. A systematic Review on status of lead population and toxicity in Iran; guidance for preventive measures. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012; 20:2.
Papanikolaou NC, Hatzidaki EG, Belivanis S, Tzanakakis GN, Tsatsakis AM. Lead toxicity update. A brief review. Med Sci Monit 2005; 11: RA329-36.
Patrick L. Lead toxicity, a review of the literature. Part 1: Exposure, evaluation, and treatment. Altern Med Rev 2006; 11: 2-22.
Tandon SK, Chatterjee M, Bhargava A, Shukla V, Bihari V. Lead poisoning in Indian silver refiners. Sci Total Environ 2001; 281:177-82.
Choy KD, Lee HS, Tan CH. Blood lead monitoring in a decorative ceramic tiles factory in Singapore. Singapore Med J 2004; 45:176-9.
Fred M .Henretig .Goldfrank's toxicologic emergencie.9th ed.2011; 94; 1269-1280.
Masoodi M, Zali MR, Ehsani-Ardakani MJ, Mohammad-Alizadeh AH, Aiassofi K, Aghazadeh R, et al. Abdominal pain due to lead contaminated opium: a new source of inorganic lead poisoning in Iran. Arch Iran Med 2006; 9: 72-5.
van der Klooster JM. A medical mystery. Lead poisoning. Singapore Med J 2004; 45: 497-9.
Algora M, Martín-Castillo A, Zabala P, Fernández MN. Lead poisoning due to drug addiction: a new source of poisoning with clinical interest and important epidemiological consequences. An Med Interna 1989; 6: 483-5.
Ibrahim AS, Latif AH. Adult lead poisoning from a herbal medicine. Saudi Med J 2002; 23: 591-3.
Thomson RM, Parry GJ. Neuropathies associated with excessive exposure to lead. Muscle Nerve 2006; 33: 732-41.
Baigmohammadi MT, Mohammadi M, Mahmoodpour A, Karvandian K, Aghdashi M. Quadriplegia due to lead-contaminated opium: a case report. Tehran Univ Med J. 2008; 66 (7):521-524.
Salehi H, Sayadi A.R, Zarea R, Soltanpour N, Hoseinpour A. Comparison of Serum Lead Level in Oral Opium Dependent Men with Healthy Control Group. Medical Journal of Mashhad
University of Medical Sciences. 2009; 52(3):129-132.
Kalantari S, Khoshi A, Mohebbi M, Fooladsaz K. Investigation of Blood Lead Levels and Its Toxicity in Workers of Zinc Melting Factory of Dandi, Zanjan, Iran. ZUMS Journal. 2009; 17 (66):79-86.
Meybodi FA, Eslick GD, Sasani S, Abdolhoseyni M, Sazegar S, Ebrahimi F. Oral opium: an unusual cause of lead poisoning. Singapore Med J. 2012 Jun 1; 53(6):395-7.
Karimi G, Moshiri M, Etemad L. Review of cases of lead poisoning from opium abuse in Iran. Pharmacol online. 2009; 3:897-905.
Abbasi MM, Ansari M, Shahesmaeili A, Qaraie A. Lead Serum Levels in Opium-Dependent Individuals. Addiction and Health. 2010 Nov 10; 1(2).
Aminpour MR, Barkhourdari A, Ehrampoush MH, Hakimian AM. Blood Lead Levels in Workers at Kooshk Lead and Zinc Mine. J Shaheed Sadoughi Univ Med Sci 2008; 16(2):24-30.
Keramati MR, Nemaei Ghasemi M, Balalimoud M. Correlation between iron deficiency and lead intoxication in the workers of a car battery manufacturer. J Birjand Univ Med Sci 2009; 16(1): 51-8.
Khatibi-Moghadam H, Khadem-Rezaiyan M, Afshari R. Comparison of serum and urine lead levels in opium addicts with healthy control group. Human & experimental toxicology. 2016; 35(8):861-5.
Hayatbakhsh MM, Oghabian Z, Conlon E, Nakhaee S, Amirabadizadeh AR, Zahedi MJ, Moghadam SD, Ahmadi B, Soroush S, Aaseth J, Mehrpour O. Lead poisoning among opium users in Iran: an emerging health hazard. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy. 2017 Oct 5;12(1):43
Domeneh BH, Tavakoli N, Jafari N. Blood lead level in opium dependents and its association with anemia: A cross-sectional study from the capital of Iran. Journal of research in medical sciences: the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. 2014; 19(10):939.