Neurologic Manifestations of Childhood Rheumatic Diseases

Reza SHIARI

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 1-7
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3914

How to Cite this Article: Shiari R. Neurologic Manifestations of Childhood Rheumatic Diseases.  Iran
J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4): 1-7.

Children with rheumatic disorders may have a wide variety of clinical features ranging from fever or a simple arthritis to complex multisystem autoimmune diseases. Information about the prevalence of neurological manifestations in children with rheumatologic disorders is limited. This review describes the neurologic complications of childhood Rheumatic disease either solely or combined with symptoms of other organs involvement, as a primary manifestation or as a part of other symptoms, additionally.

 

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Effects of Piracetam on Pediatric Breath Holding Spells: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial

Ali ABBASKHANIAN, Sara EHTESHAMI, Sadegh SAJJADI, Mohammad Sadegh REZAI

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 9-15
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3915

How to cite this article:Abbaskhanian A, Ehteshami S, Sajjadi S, Rezai MS. Effects of Piracetam on Pediatric Breath Holding Spells: A Randomized Double Blind Controlled Trial. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4): 9-15.

 

Abstarct:

Objective

Breath holding spells (BHS) are common paroxysmal non-epileptic eventsin the pediatric population which are very stressfull despite their harmlessnature. There has been no specific treatment found for the spells yet. The aimof this study was to evaluate the efficacy of piracetam (2-oxo-l-pyrrolidine)on these children.

Materials & Methods

In this randomized double blind clinical trial study, 150 children with severe BHS referred to our pediatric outpatient service were enrolled from August2011 to July 2012. The patients were randomized into two equal groups.One received 40mg/kg/day piracetam and the other group received placebo,twice daily. Patients were followed monthly for three months. The numberof attacks/month before and after treatment were documented.

Results

Of the enrolled patients, 86 were boys. The mean age of the patients was17 months (range, 6 to 24 months). In the piracetam group, 1 month after treatment an 81% response to treatment was found. In the placebo group,none of the patients had complete remission and 7% of the cases had partialremission. Overall, control of breath-holding spells was observed in 91%of the patients in the group taking piracetam as compared with 16% in the group taking placebo at the end of the study. There wasd nosignificant difference detected between the groups regarding the prevalenceof drug side effects.

Conclusion

A significant difference was detected between piracetam and placebo in prevention and controlling BHS. Piracetam (40mg/kg/day) had a good effecton our patients.

 

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Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children

Parvaneh KARIMZADEH, Mohammadkazem BAKHSHANDEH BALI, Mohammad Mahdi Nasehi, Seyedeh Mohaddese Taheri Otaghsara, Mohammad Ghofrani

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 17-22
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3916

How to cite this article: Karimzadeh P, Bakhshandeh Bali MK, Nasehi MM, Taheri Otaghsara SM, Ghofrani M. Atypical Findings of Guillain-Barré Syndrome in Children. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):17-22.

 

Abstract

Objective

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy that occurs mostly after  prior infection. The diagnosis of this syndrome is dependent heavily on the history and examination, although cerebrospinal fluid analysis and electrodiagnostic testing usually confirm the diagnosis. This is a retrospective study which was performed to investigate the atypical features of GBS.

Materials & Methods

Thirty three patients (21/63.6% males and 12/36.4% females) with GBS were retrospectively studied and prospectively evaluated at the Child Neurology institute of Mofid Children Hospital of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences between May 2011 and September 2012.

Results

The mean age was 5.4 years (range, 1.5-10.5).Twenty one patients (87.9 %) had previous history of infections. Eight patients (24.2%) admitted with atypical symptoms like upper limb weakness (3%), ptosis (3%), neck stiffness (3%), inability to stand (proximal weakness) (9.1%), headache (3%) and dysphagia (3%).According to disease process, weakness was ascending in 26 (78.8%), descending in 5 (15.2%) and static in 2 (6.1%) patients. Cranial nerve involvement was found in 8(24.3%) children, most commonly as facial palsy in 3 (9.1%).

Conclusion

In this study, 24.3% of our patients presented with atypical symptoms of GBS as upper limb weakness, ptosis, neck stiffness, inability to stand (proximal weakness), headache and dysphagia

 

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Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism

Mehrdad MIROULIAEI, Razieh FALLAH, Nasrollah BASHARDOOST, Mina PARTOVEE, Mahtab ORDOOEI

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 23-26
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3917

How to Cite this article: Mirouliaie M, Fallah R, Partovee M, Ordooei M. Efficacy of Levothyroxine in Migraine Headaches in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):23-26.

 

Abstract

Objective

Hypothyroidism may be an exacerbating factor for  primary headaches and migraine is one of the most common primary headaches in childhood. Thepurpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism on children with migraine headache.

Materials & Methods

In a quasi-experimental study, the severity and monthly frequency of headache of 25 migraineur  children with subclinical hypothyroidism who were referred to the pediatric neurology clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between January 2010 and February 2011and were treated with levothyroxine for two months were evaluated.

Results

Thirteen girls (52%) and 12 boys (48%) with the mean age of 10.2 ± 2.76years were evaluated.In children with hypothyroidism, the monthly frequency of headache (mean± SD: 17.64 ± 9.49 times vs. 1.2 ± 1.1 times) and the severity of headache(mean± SD: 6.24±1.8 scores vs. 1.33 ± 0.87 scores) were significantly decreased by treatment.

Conclusion

Based on the results of this study, treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism was effective in reducing migraine headaches. Therefore, it is logical to check thyroid function tests in migraineur  children. 

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  12. Bigal ME, Lipton RB, Winner P, Reed ML, Diamond S, Stewart WF. Migraine in adolescents: association with socioeconomic status and family history. Neurology. 2007 Jul;69(1):16-25.
  13. Singh SK. Prevalence of migraine in hypothyroidism. J Assoc Physicians India. 2002 Nov;50:1455-6.
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  16. Abend NS, Younkin D. Medical Causes of Headache in Children. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2007 Oct;11(5):401-7.
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Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years

Mansour SADEGHZADEH, Parisa KHOSHNEVIS ASL, Esrafil MAHBOUBI

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 27-31
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3918

 

How to cite this article: Sadeghzadeh M, Khoshnevis P, Mahboubi E. Iron Status and Febrile Seizure- A Case Control Study in Children Less Than 3 Years. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):27-31.

Abstract

Objective:

Febrile seizure is one of the most common neurological conditions of childhood. Several theories, such as iron deficiency anemia have been proposed as the pathogenesis of this condition. The aim of this study was to find the association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures in children aged 6 months to 3 years admitted in Valie Asr hospital in Zanjan.

Materials &Methods

Hemoglobin (Hb), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), serum iron (SI), total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and SI/TIBC ratio were assessed in one hundred children with febrile seizures and compared to the values of one hundred healthy children presenting in a heath care center in the same period as the control group.

Results

A total of 6% of cases had iron deficiency anemia which was similar to the control group. In the case group SI/TIBC ratio below 12% was seen in 58% of children which was significantly higher than that of the control group (29%).

Conclusion

The results of this study suggest that although anemia was not common among febrile seizure patients, iron deficiency was more frequent in these patients.

 

References

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  25. Vaswani RK, Dharaskar PG, Kulkarni S, Ghosh K. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure. Indian Pediatr. 2010 May;47(5):437-9.
  26. Ozaydin E, Arhan E, Cetinkaya B, Ozdel S, Değerliyurt A, Güven A et al. Differences in iron deficiency anemia and mean platelet volume between children with simple and complex febrile seizures. Seizure. 2012 Apr;21(3):211-4.
  27. Abdurrahman KN, Al-atrushi AM. The association between iron deficiency anemia and first febrile seizure: a case-control study. Duhok Med J. 2010;4(1):60-6.
  28. Amirsalari S, Keihani doust ZT, Ahmadi M, Sabouri A, Kavemanesh Z, Afsharpeyman SH et al. Relationship between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures. Iran J Child Neurol. 2010;4(1):27-30.
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Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors

Hamed ESMAILI GOURABI, Elham BIDABADI, Fatemeh CHERAGHALIPOUR, Yasaman AARABI, Fatemeh SALAMAT

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 33-37
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3919

How to cite this article: Esmaili Gourabi H, Bidabadi E, Cheraghalipour  F, Aarabi  Y, Salamat F. Febrile Seizure: Demographic Features and Causative Factors. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):33-37.

Abstract

Objective

Because of geographical and periodical variation, we prompted to determine the demographic features and causative factors for febrile seizure in Rasht.

Materials & Methods

In this cross-sectional study, all 6–month- to 6-year-old children with the diagnosis of febrile seizure admitted to 17 Shahrivar hospital in Rasht, from August, 2009 to August, 2010 were studied. Age, sex, family history of the disease, seizure types, body temperature upon admission and infectious causes of the fever were recorded. All statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software, version 16.

Results

Of the 214 children (mean age, 25.24±15.40 months), 124 were boys and 109 had a positive family history. Complex seizures were seen in 39 cases. In patients with a complex febrile seizure, 59% had the repetitive type, 20.5% had the focal type and 20.5% had more than 15 minutes duration of seizures. Most of the repetitive seizures (78.3%) occurred in patients under 2 years old; the difference between under and over 2-year-old patients was statistically significant (P=0.02). Study results did not show significant differences between the two genders for simple or complex seizures. The mean body temperature upon admission was 38.2±1.32◦C (38.31±0.82 degrees in boys and 38.04±1.78 in girls). Upper respiratory infections were seen in most patients (74.29%). All cases of lower respiratory infections were boys. There was a statistically significant difference between boys and girls in causes of fever.

Conclusion

Most of the children had a positive family history and the most common causative factor was upper respiratory infection.

 

References:

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  7. Vahidnia F, Eskenazi B, Jewell N. Maternal smoking, alcohol drinking, and febrile convulsion. Seizure. 2008 Jun;17(4):320-6.
  8. Ashrafzade F, Hashemzadeh A, Malek A. Acute otitis Media in Children with Febrile Convulsion. Iran J Otorhinolaryngol. 2002;16(35):33-9.
  9. Millichap JJ, Gordon Millichap J. Methods of investigation and management of infections causing febrile seizures. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Dec;39(6):381-6.
  10. Hosseini Nasab A, Dai pariz M, Alidousti K. Demographic characteristics and predisposing factors of febrile seizures in children admitted to Hospital No. 1 of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. J Med Counc Islam Repub Iran. 2006;24(2):107-12.
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  18. Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Fallahi M, Javadi A. Risk factors of the first febrile seizures in Iranian children. Int J Pediatr. 2010 2010:862897.
  19. Kolahi AA, Tahmooreszadeh S. First febrile convulsions: inquiry about the knowledge, attitudes and concerns of the patients’ mothers. Eur J Pediatr. 2009 Feb;168(2):167-71.
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Effects of Stress on Mothers of Hospitalized Children in a Hospital in Iran

Tayebeh HASAN TEHRANI, Mohammad HAGHIGHI, Hasan BAZMAMOUN

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 39-45
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.3920

How to cite this article: Hasan Tehrani T, Haghighi M, Bazmamoun H. Effects of Stress on Mothers of Hospitalized Children in a Hospital in Iran. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012;6(4):39-45.

Abstract

Objective

Hospitalization of a child can cause severe anxiety and stress in the parents, especially for the mother. This stress consequently affects the treatment course of the child. Hereby, we investigate the impact of different stressors in mothers of hospitalized children.

Materials & Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 225 mothers of hospitalized children in the pediatric ward of Besat hospital were randomly selected and studied. Data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire gathered by interviewing the mother. The first part included demographic information of the patients. The second part included questions regarding stressors in four different categories; child-related factors, environmental factors, socioeconomic factors and health professional factors. SPSS 16.5 was used for statistical analysis and data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and T test.

Results

In the child-related factor category, fear of child death (84%); in the socioeconomic factor category, fear of disease in the other siblings (84%); in the environmental factor category, unpleasant odors in the ward (56%); and in the health professional category, not enough explanation about inserting IV lines, (54.2%) constituted the most important factors.

There was a meaningful correlation between the stressors and the mothers’ age and occupation, child age, days of hospitalization, types of admission and health insurance coverage, but there was no meaningful correlation between stressors and other factors.

Conclusion

Professional and in depth training programs should be provided for health care providers and nursing staff regarding dealing with mothers of hospitalized children.

 

References:

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  12. Esmaeilzadeh H. Stressors of mothers of hospitalized neonates in Qods hospital JQUMS. 2003;6(4):40-5.
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  14. Lam LW, Chang AM, Morrissey J. Parents’ experiences of participation in the care of hospitalized children: a qualitative study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006 Jul;43(5):535-45.

 


 

 

A Case of Schizencephaly and Septo-Optic Dysplasia Presenting with Anterior Encephalocele

Kaveh FADAKAR, Sahar DADKHAHFAR, Arash ESMAEILI, Zarrintaj KEYHANIDOUST

Iranian Journal of Child Neurology, Vol. 6 No. 4 (2012), 2 January 2013 , Page 47-50
https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i4.2599

How to cite this article: Fadakar K, Dadkhahfar S, Esmaeili A, Keyhanidoust Z. A Case of Schizencephaly and Septo-Optic Dysplasia Presenting with Anterior Encephalocele. Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4):47-50.

 

Abstract

Schizencephaly is a rare central nervous system disorder with variable presentations. Here we report a patient with a huge bilateral schizencephaly and septo-optic dysplasia presenting with anterior encephalocele.

 

References:

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How to cite this article: Shakiba M, Nejad Biglari H, Alaee MR. Digital and Dental Malformation and Short Stature in a Patient with Neurological Problems: A Variant of the Oculodentodigital Dysplasia Syndrome or a New Syndrome?Iran J Child Neurol Autumn 2012; 6(4): 51-54.

 

Abstract

Several syndromes have been recognized with digital abnormality and CNS involvement such as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), Mohr syndrome and Joubert syndrome. We report a patient who was referred to us because of the neurological signs suspicious of metabolic disorders. This case was a 22-year-old woman whose problems began 4 years ago with shortening of memory, ataxia, abnormal gait and diplopia which progressed slowly. She consulted many neurologists and was on treatment with the suspicion of vasculitis, but no response was detected. She had severe short stature, hypoplasia of the middle and distal phalanges of the first, second and third fingers, clinodactyly, abnormal toes, abnormal enamel and missing teeth. She had no characteristic faces of ODDD and ophthalmological abnormality. Our patient might be a variant of ODDD or a new syndrome with somatic and neurologic signs.

References:

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  9. Aminabadi NA, Pourkazemi M, Oskouei SG, Jamali Z. Dental management of oculodentodigital dysplasia:a case report. J Oral Sci. 2010 Jun;52(2):337-42.