History, Studies and Specific Uses of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Treating Epilepsy




How to Cite This Article: Noohi S, Amirsalari S. History, Studies and Specific Uses of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Treating Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol. Winter 2016; 10(1):1-8.




In this study, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and its specific use for treating epilepsy were carefully scrutinized.

 Materials & Methods

Target researches such as review articles, case reports, books and theses, which had to do with therapeutic method of rTMS were surveyed. It is worth mentioning that until the final stages, the search for records and documents related to rTMS went on and in the end, the collected data underwent a qualitative analysis.


As the literature review suggests, TMS principally applies electromagnetic induction to generate an electric current inside the brain without physical contact. The therapeutic uses of rTMS are for a wide range of mental disorders, namely epilepsy, chronic pains, motor disorders and so on.


Despite safety concerns and possible side effects, many researchers subscribe to rTMS and see a bright future for it.


Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS); Epilepsy; Treatment

Full Text:





Higgins ES, George MS. Brain Stimulation Therapies for the Clinician. 1st edition ed. New York: American Psychiatric Publication; 2008. p 203.

Sackeim HA, Prudic J, Devanand DP, Nobler MS, Lisanby SH, Peyser S, et al. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2000;57(5):425-34.

Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL. Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet


Wassermann EM, Zimmermann T. Transcranial magnetic brain stimulation: therapeutic promises and scientific gaps. Pharmacol Therapeutics 2012;133(1):98-107.

Wassermann EM, Lisanby SH. Therapeutic application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a review. Clin Neurophysiol 2001;112(8):1367-77.

Khomami S, Rostami R. Remedy of Social Functions and Symptoms of Depression before and after Repetitive Stimulation (rTMS) on the Skull in Major Depression Patients [dissertation]. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2008.[Persian]

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Applied Electrophysiology. In: Boutros N, Iacono W, Galderisi S, editors. Kaplan and Sadock’s Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry. 9th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009. p.211-48.

Marcolin MA, Padberg F. Transcranial Brain Stimulation for Treatment of Psychiatric Disorders. 1st ed. Kaschka WP, Gattaz WF, editors. Switzerland: S. Karger; 2007. p 230.

George MS, Belmaker RH. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Neuropsychiatry. 1st ed. Washington:

American Psychiatric Press; Inc 2007;37:269-87.

Pascual-Leone A, Valls-Sole J, Brasil-Neto JP, Cohen LG, Hallett M. Akinesia in Parkinson’s disease. I. Shortening of simple reaction time with focal, single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1994;44(5):884-91.

Roth BJ, Cohen LG, Hallett M. The electric field induced during magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalogr and Clin Neurophysiol Suppl. 1991;43:268-78.

Rezayi-Koochaksarayi M. The Effect of Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation of the Skull (rTMS) on Drug

Consumption and Psychological Well-being in Methamphetamine (crystal) Dependent Addicts

[dissetation]. Tehran: University of Tehran; 2011.[Fa]

Yadollahpour A, Firoozabadi SM, Mirnajafizade SJ. Investigating the Anticonvulsant Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Perforant Path Kindling Model in Rats. Zah J Res Med Sci 2015;17(2):37-41.

Abel MS, McCandless DW. Animal Models of Neurological Disease, In: Boulton AA, Baker GB,

Butterworth RF, editors: Humana Press; 1992, p.153-67.

Mongabadi S, Firouzabadi SMP, Mirnajafi-Zadeh J. Effect of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on acquisition of chemical kindling seizures in rats. Physiol Pharmacol 2008;12(1):31-8.

Chen R, Classen J, Gerloff C, Celnik P, Wassermann EM, Hallett M, et al. Depression of motor cortex excitability by low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology 1997;48(5):1398-403.

Knecht S, Ellger T, Breitenstein C, Bernd Ringelstein E, Henningsen H. Changing cortical excitability with lowfrequency transcranial magnetic stimulation can induce sustained disruption of tactile perception. Biol Psychiatry 2003;53(2):175-9.

Wassermann EM. Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, June 5-7,1996. Electroencephal Clin Neurophysiol 1998;108(1):1-16.

Maeda F, Keenan JP, Tormos JM, Topka H, Pascual-Leone A. Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clin Neurophysiol 2000;111(5):800-5.

Post RM, Speer AM, Weiss SR, Li H. Seizure models: anticonvulsant effects of ECT and rTMS. Prog in Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2000;24(8):1251-73.

Cincotta M, Borgheresi A, Gambetti C, Balestrieri F, Rossi L, Zaccara G, et al. Suprathreshold 0.3 Hz repetitive TMS prolongs the cortical silent period: potential implications for therapeutic trials in epilepsy. Clin Neurophysiol 2003;114(10):1827-33.

Theodore WH, Hunter K, Chen R, Vega-Bermudez F, Boroojerdi B, Reeves-Tyer P, et al. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of seizures: a controlled study. Neurology 2002;59(4):560-2.

Menkes DL, Gruenthal M. Slow-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in a patient with focal cortical dysplasia. Epilepsia 2000;41(2):240-2.

Akamatsu N, Yukiko F, Yutaka E, Akira T, Tomonari Y, Takenori U, et al. The therapeutic effects of highfrequency transcranial magnetic stimulation on pentylenetetrazol-induced status epilepticus in rats. Inter Cong Ser 2005;1278:423–6.

Hoogendam JM, Ramakers GM, Di Lazzaro V. Physiology of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human brain. Brain Stimul 2010;3(2):95-118.

Steinhoff BJ, Stodieck SR, Paulus W, Witt TN. Transcranial stimulation. Neurology 1992;42(7):1429-30.

Kanai R, Chaieb L, Antal A, Walsh V, Paulus W. Frequency-dependent electrical stimulation of the visual cortex. Curr Biol 2008;18(23):1839-43.

Kinoshita M, Ikeda A, Begum T, Yamamoto J, Hitomi T, Shibasaki H. Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for seizure suppression in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy-a pilot study. Seizure 2005;14(6):387-92.

Misawa S, Kuwabara S, Shibuya K, Mamada K, Hattori T. Low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation for epilepsia partialis continua due to cortical dysplasia. J Neurol Sci 2005;234(1-2):37-9.

Lefaucheur JP. New insights into the therapeutic potential of non-invasive transcranial cortical stimulation in chronic neuropathic pain. Pain 2006;122(1-2):11-3.

Martin JL, Barbanoj MJ, Perez V, Sacristan M. Transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Cochrane Database Sys Rev 2003(3):Cd003387.

Post RM, Kimbrell T, Frye M, George M, McCann U, Little J, et al. Implications of Kindling and Quenching For the Possible Frequency Dependence Of rTMS. CNS Spectrums 1997;2(1):54-60.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v10i1.6759


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2015 Iranian Journal of Child Neurology