Hypertensive Encephalopathy

Mostafa SHARIFIAN

Abstract


799

How to cite this article: Sharifian M. Hypertensive Encephalopathy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012; 6(3):1-7.

Hypertension is called the silent killer and vital organs such as the brain, eyes,kidneys and the heart are the targets. Seizure, central nervous system (CNS)hemorrhage, and cerebrovascular accident (CVA), blindness and heart attacksare the end points.The prevalence of hypertension in children is much less than adults, but evidencereveals that the source of hypertension in adulthood goes back to childhood. In70-80% of cases hypertension is due to renal diseases. In children, hypertensiveencephalopathy (HE) may be the first manifestation of renal diseases. Seizure isone of the most common manifestations of HE.In this article, definitions, etiology, pathophysiology and finally the acute andchronic managements of HE will be discussed.

References

  1. Sawicka K, Szczyrek M, Jastrzębska I, Prasal M, ZwolakA, Jadwiga D. Hypertension – The silent killer. J Pre-Clin Clin Res 2011;5(2):43-6.
  2. Croix B, Feig DI. Childhood hypertension is not a silent disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2006 Apr;21(4):527-32.
  3. Wong TY, Mitchell P. Hypertensive retinopathy. N Engl J Med 2004 Nov;351(22):2310-7.
  4. Krzesinski JM, Cohen EP.Hypertension and the kidney.Acta Clin Belg 2007 Jan-Feb;62(1):5-14.
  5. Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children – 1987. Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Pediatrics 1987Jan;79(1):1-25.
  6. Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1996 Oct;98(4 Pt1):649-58.
  7. Ataei N, Aghamohammadi A, Yousefi E, Hosseini M, Nourijelyani K, Tayebi M, et al. Blood pressure nomograms for school children in Iran. Pediatr Nephrol 2004 Feb;19(2):164-8.
  8. Lande MB. Systemic hypertension. In: Kliegman RM,Stanton BF, Schor NF. St. Geme III JW, Behrman RE. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Elsevier; 2011.P.1639-47.
  9. Awazu M. Epidemiology of hypertension. In: AvnerED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag;2009. P.1460-84.
  10. Yamaguchi I, Flynn JT. Pathophysiology of Hypertension.In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N.Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2009. p.1485-1518.
  11. Brewer ED. Evaluation of Hypertension in Childhood Diseases. In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P,Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2009. p.1519-40.
  12. Ellis D. Management of the Hypertensive Child. In: AvnerED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6 th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag;2009. p. 1457-541.
  13. 13. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis,evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004 Aug;11492 Suppl 4th Report:555-76.
  14. Sharifian M, Noorisafa M, Kiahosseini M. Hypertensive encephalopathy due to mercury poisoning (with three cases of mercury poisoning in one Iranian family). Iran J Child Neurol 2007 Aug;1(4):53-9.
  15. 15. Mc Coy HO. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: An emerging clinical entity in adult, pediatric, and obstetric critical care. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 2008 Feb;20(2):100-6.
  16. Ruilope L, Rynkiewicz A, Schmieder RE, Struijker Boudier HAJ, Zanchetti A. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial of hypertension. The Task Forcefor the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of theEuropean Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2007;28:1462-536.
  17. 17. McNiece KL, Portman RJ. Hypertension epidemiologyand evaluation. In: Kher KK, Schnaper HW, Makker SP.Clinical pediatric nephrology. UK: Informa Healthcare;2007. P. 461-80.
  18. 18. Roth C, Ferbert A. Posterior reversible encephalopathysyndrome: long-term follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010 Jul;81(7):773-7.
  19. Rust RS, Swaimar K, F Ashwal S, Ferriero DM,Schor NF. Interrelationship between renal and neurologicdiseases and therapies. In: Swaiman’s pediatric neurology,principles and practice. 5th ed. UK/USA: Elsevier,Saunders; 2012. p. 1782-820.
  20. Flynn JT, Tullus K. Severe hypertension in children and adolescents: pathophysiology and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol 2008;24:829-33.
  21. Hamilton BE, Nesbit GM. Delayed CSF enhancementin posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008 Mar;29(3):456-7.

 


Keywords


Hypertension; Hypertensive encephalopathy; Children.

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References


References

Sawicka K, Szczyrek M, Jastrzębska I, Prasal M, ZwolakA, Jadwiga D. Hypertension – The silent killer. J Pre-Clin Clin Res 2011;5(2):43-6.

Croix B, Feig DI. Childhood hypertension is not a silent disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2006 Apr;21(4):527-32.

Wong TY, Mitchell P. Hypertensive retinopathy. N Engl J Med 2004 Nov;351(22):2310-7.

Krzesinski JM, Cohen EP.Hypertension and the kidney.

Acta Clin Belg 2007 Jan-Feb;62(1):5-14.

Report of the Second Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children – 1987. Task Force on Blood Pressure Control in Children. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland. Pediatrics 1987Jan;79(1):1-25.

Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents: a working group report from the National High Blood Pressure Education Program. National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Pediatrics 1996 Oct;98(4 Pt1):649-58.

Ataei N, Aghamohammadi A, Yousefi E, Hosseini M, Nourijelyani K, Tayebi M, et al. Blood pressure nomograms for school children in Iran. Pediatr Nephrol 2004 Feb;19(2):164-8.

Lande MB. Systemic hypertension. In: Kliegman RM,Stanton BF, Schor NF. St. Geme III JW, Behrman RE. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Elsevier; 2011.P.1639-47.

Awazu M. Epidemiology of hypertension. In: AvnerED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag;2009. P.1460-84.

Yamaguchi I, Flynn JT. Pathophysiology of Hypertension.In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N.Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2009. p.1485-1518.

Brewer ED. Evaluation of Hypertension in Childhood Diseases. In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P,Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 2009. p.1519-40.

Ellis D. Management of the Hypertensive Child. In: AvnerED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N. Pediatric Nephrology 6 th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag;2009. p. 1457-541.

National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. The fourth report on the diagnosis,evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2004 Aug;11492 Suppl 4th Report:555-76.

Sharifian M, Noorisafa M, Kiahosseini M. Hypertensive encephalopathy due to mercury poisoning (with three cases of mercury poisoning in one Iranian family). Iran J Child Neurol 2007 Aug;1(4):53-9.

Mc Coy HO. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: An emerging clinical entity in adult, pediatric, and obstetric critical care. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 2008 Feb;20(2):100-6.

Ruilope L, Rynkiewicz A, Schmieder RE, Struijker Boudier HAJ, Zanchetti A. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial of hypertension. The Task Forcefor the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of theEuropean Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2007;28:1462-536.

McNiece KL, Portman RJ. Hypertension epidemiologyand evaluation. In: Kher KK, Schnaper HW, Makker SP.Clinical pediatric nephrology. UK: Informa Healthcare;2007. P. 461-80.

Roth C, Ferbert A. Posterior reversible encephalopathysyndrome: long-term follow-up. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2010 Jul;81(7):773-7.

Rust RS, Swaimar K, F Ashwal S, Ferriero DM,Schor NF. Interrelationship between renal and neurologicdiseases and therapies. In: Swaiman’s pediatric neurology,principles and practice. 5th ed. UK/USA: Elsevier,Saunders; 2012. p. 1782-820.

Flynn JT, Tullus K. Severe hypertension in children and adolescents: pathophysiology and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol 2008;24:829-33.

Hamilton BE, Nesbit GM. Delayed CSF enhancementin posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2008 Mar;29(3):456-7.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v6i3.3530

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