Bilirubin Induced Encephalopathy, a Review Article

Parvaneh Karimzadeh, Minoo Fallahi, Mohammad Kazemian, Naeeme Taslimi Taleghani, Shamsollah Nouripour, Mitra Radfar

Abstract


83

Hyperbilirubinemia is one of the most common neonatal disorders. Delayed diagnosis and treatment of the pathologic and progressive indirect hyperbilirubinemia lead to neurological deficits, defined as bilirubin induced encephalopathy . The incidence of this disorder in underdeveloped countries is much more than developed areas. All neonates with  the risk factors for increase the blood level of indirect bilirubin are at risk for bilirubin encephalopathy ,especially preterm neonates which are prone to low bilirubin kernicterus .Bilirubin toxicity can be transient and acute(with early ,intermediate and advanced phases)or be permanent, chronic(kernicterus)and lifelong ( with tetrad of symptoms including visual (upward gaze palsy), auditory (sensory neural hearing loss), dental dysplasia abnormalities, and extrapyramidal disturbances (choreoathetosis cerebral palsy).Beside the abnormal neurologic manifestations of the jaundiced neonates ,brain MRI is the best imaging modality for the confirmation of the diagnosis. Although early treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia by phototherapy and exchange transfusion can prevent the BIE, unfortunately the chronic bilirubin encephalopathy does not have definitive treatment


Keywords


Bilirubin Induced Encephalopathy, Kernicterus, Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal Jaundice

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ijcn.v14i1.27890

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