Blood lead level in children with neurologic disorders: a case- control study.
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology,
Vol. 12 No. 2 (2018),
14 March 2018
Aim: To investigate blood lead level (BLL) in children with neurologic disorders of unknown causes and compare with normal children.
Methods: In this prospective case control study, 68 patients aged 1 to 18 years with neurologic disorders of unknown causes, were selected during a 12 month period from Sep. 2013. They were compared with 1:1 ratio, age and sex matched healthy children. BLL was checked from all participants using 3 cc heparinized venous blood sample. Level of ≥5 mcg/dl was considered toxic dose.
Results: Totally, 136 children (68 cases and 68 controls) with mean ages of 5.20±4.12 and 4.18±3.86, respectively, entered the study. Mean BLL was higher in case group than in controls but the difference was not significant (P=0.84), though they were less than toxic levels in both. Also, the difference in mean BLLs were not significant in terms of living place, sex and age. Totally, 17.7% 0f the study sample had BLL ≥5 mcg/dl. The frequency of BLL ≥5 mcg/dl was significantly higher in case group (P=0.024) with and odds ratio 2.9 times higher (95% CI: 1.066-7.60).
Conclusions: Strategies in public health must focus on practicing primary and secondary preventions of lead exposure in children.
- lead poisoning
- brain diseases
- cerebral palsy
World Health Organization 2010. Childhood lead poisoning. Geneva, Switzerland, 2010. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/136571/1/9789241500333_eng.pdf?ua=1&ua=1
Eubig PA, Aguiar A, Schantz SL. Lead and PCBs as risk factors for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Environmental health perspectives 2010;118:1654-1667.
Davis DW, Chang F, Burns B, Robinson J, Dossett D. Lead exposure and attention regulation in children living in poverty. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 2004;46:825-831.
Cohen SM. Lead poisoning: a summary of treatment and prevention. Pediatr Nurs 2001;27:125-126, 129-130.
Charney E, Kessler B, Farfel M, Jackson D. Childhood lead poisoning: a controlled trial of the effect of dust-control measures on blood lead levels. N Engl J Med 1983;309: 1089-1093.
CDC. Morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR), blood Lead Levels in children aged 1–5 years — United States, 1999–201. 2013; 62(13);245-248.
Kumar A, Dey P, Singla PN, Ambasht R, Upadhyay S. Blood lead levels in children with neurological disorders. J Trop Pediatr 1998;44:320-322.
Lewendon G, Kinra S, Nelder R, Cronin T. Should children with developmental and behavioral problems be routinely screened for lead. Arch Dis Child 2001;85:286-288.
Khosravi N, Izadi A, Noorbakhsh S et al. Assessments of blood lead levels in children with febrile convulsion. Med J Islam Repub Iran 2014;28:97.
Guo P, Xu X, Huang B et al. Blood lead levels and associated factors among children in Guiyu of China: a population-based study. PLoS One 2014;9:e105470
Eubig PA, Aguiar A, Schantz SL. Lead and PCBs as risk factors for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Environ Health Perspect 2010;118(12):1654-1667.
Mendelsohn AL, Dreyer BP, Fierman AH et al. Low level lead exposure and behavior in early childhood. Pediatrics 1998;101(3):e10.
Daroogar S, Davari R, Kamran Lalbakhsh A. The association of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and blood lead level among children less than 10 years old referred to Tehran hospitals between 2007 and 2010. Medical Sciences Journal of Islamic Azad University 2012;22:57-61.
Stiles KM, Bellinger DC. Neuropsychological correlates of low-level lead exposure in school age children: a prospective study. Neurotoxicol Teratol 1993;15:27-35.
Koller K, Brown T, Spurgeon A, Levy L. Recent developments in low-level lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children. Environ Health Perspect 2004;112:987-994.
Cohen CJ, Bowers GN, Lepow ML. Epidemiology of lead poisoning. A comparison between urban and rural children. JAMA 1973;226:1430-1433.
Norman EH, Bordley WC, Hertz-Picciotto I, Newton DA. Rural-urban blood lead differences in North Carolina children. Pediatrics 1994;94:59-64.
Karrari P, Mehrpour O, Abdollahi M. A systematic review on status of lead pollution and toxicity in Iran; Guidance for preventive measures. Daru 2012;20:2.
Brown MJ, DeGiacomo JM, Gallagher G, et al. Lead poisoning in children of different ages. N Engl J Med 1990;323:135-6.
- Abstract Viewed: 160 times
- PDF Downloaded: 130 times