Introduction: During pulpectomy of primary teeth, cytotoxic medicaments such as formocresol or camphor mono-chlorophenol (CMCP) are used as medicaments. For the first time it is theorized that chitosan can substitute these traditional materials used in pulpectomy of infectious primary teeth. Methods and Materials: This preliminary in vitro study consisted of two separate phases (n=75), each of which assessed the antibacterial effects of chitosan versus formocresol and CMCP and positive/negative controls (n=15) on three bacteria types [Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, (n=5 per subgroup)]. Phases 1 and 2 concerned respectively with 1- and 7-day effects of these materials. Bacteria were cultured and injected into sterilized canals and colonies were counted. Medicaments were applied and colonies were re-counted after 1 day of treatment (phase 1). Specimens were re-sterilized and re-randomized, and used for phase 2, in which the same procedures were performed for a 7-day period. Effects of agents on bacteria were analyzed statistically (Kruskal-Wallis α=0.05 and Mann-Whitney α=0.017). Results: Treatments reduced bacterial count either after 1 or 7 days (P=0.000). Their effects on different bacteria types were not significant either after 1 or 7 days (P>0.48). Antibacterial efficacies of treatments (indicated by colony reduction) were significantly different, after 7 days (P=0.045). Antibacterial efficacy of chitosan was similar to that of formocresol or CMCP, in both phases [either after 1 or 7 days of treatment (P>0.017). Formocresol and CMCP had similar efficacies in either phase (P>0.017). Conclusions: This preliminary study confirmed the appropriate antibacterial efficacy of chitosan as a medicament in pulpectomy of infectious primary teeth.
Keywords: Antibacterial Agents; Camphor Mono-Chlorophenol; Chitosan; CMCP; Enterococcus faecalis; Formocresol; Medicament; Pulpectomy; Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus mutans