Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide. New cancer treatment strategies such as monoclonal antibodies against growth factor and angiogenesis receptors improved the overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. However, acquired resistance could happen after these therapies. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is the DNA fraction derived from tumor cells and could be applied as a non-invasive method for detecting tumor mutations before, during, and after therapies. Here, we reviewed most of the studies on the application of ctDNA as treatment monitoring in mCRC patients who receive different target therapies. Also, we compared ctDNA with other existing cancer-treatment monitoring methods.
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