• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., and eggs of soil-transmitted helminths in market vegetables in the north of Iran

Ali Taghipour, Ehsan Javanmard, Ali Haghighi, Hamed Mirjalali, Mohammad Reza Zali
63

Views

PDF

Abstract

Aim: This study aimed to investigate the presence of oocyst of Cryptosporidium sp., and egg of soil-transmitted helminths in market vegetables in the north of Iran.

Background: Fecal-oral transmission via consumption of contaminated food is the main route of transmission of intestinal parasites. Concerning the high risk of contamination of vegetable with intestinal parasites, raw consumption of crops can enhance the chance of transmission of intestinal parasites.

Methods: In this study, we collected 34 pre-washed vegetable samples including spinach, mint, parsley, oregano, chives, savory, radish, coriander, basil and tarragon from local markets in Tonekabon City, North of Iran. All vegetable samples were washed using sterile PBS. Parasitological examinations, including direct examination and staining with Lugol’s iodine and modified Ziehl–Neelsen were performed on the pellet resulted from the washing process.

Results: The findings showed that 14/34 (41.17%) of collected samples were contaminated with at least one parasite. Eggs of Toxocara sp., Ascaris sp., Fasciola sp., Toxoascaris leonine, Trichuris sp. and Enterobius together with free-living larvae, amoeba cyst, cyst of Entamoeba coli and oocyst of Cryptosporidium sp., were observed among the positive samples. Furthermore, statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between parasitic contamination of vegetables and seasonal changes.

Conclusion: This study signifies that some parasites due to their resistant cell wall usually remain in an environment with the harsh condition and thus, consumption of raw vegetables increases the risk of transmission of them.

Keywords: Iran, North of Iran, Vegetables, Parasitic contamination.

(Please cite as Taghipour A, Javanmard E, Haghighi A, Mirjalali H, Zali MR. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium sp., and eggs of soil-transmitted helminths in market vegetables in the north of Iran. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019;12(4):364-369).


Keywords

Iran; North of Iran; Vegetables; Parasitic contamination.

References

Alum A, Rubino JR, Ijaz MK. The global war against intestinal parasites—should we use a holistic approach? Int J Infect Dis 2010;14:e732-e8.

Taghipour A, Tabarsi P, Sohrabi MR, Riahi SM, Rostami A, Mirjalali H, et al. Frequency, associated factors and clinical symptoms of intestinal parasites among tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis groups in Iran: a comparative cross-sectional study. Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg 2019; 113:234-41.

Okhuysen PC, White AC, Jr. Parasitic infections of the intestines. Curr Opin Infect Dis 1999;12:467-72.

United Nations. Water for people, water for life. The United Nations world water development report. Barcelona: UNESCO; 2003.

Jiménez B. Irrigation in developing countries using wastewater. International Review for Environmental Strategies 2006;6:229-50.

Evans AEV, Hanjra MA, Jiang YL, Qadir M, Drechsel P. Water quality: assessment of the current situation in Asia. International Journal of Water Resources Development 2012;28:195-216.

Amoah ID, Abubakari A, Stenstrom TA, Abaidoo RC, Seidu R. Contribution of wastewater irrigation to soil transmitted helminths infection among vegetable farmers in Kumasi, Ghana. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016;10:e0005161.

Cutolo SA, Piveli RP, Santos JG, Montes CR, Sundefeld G, Campos F, et al. Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries. Water Sci Technol 2012;65:1357-67.

Garcia BCB, Dimasupil MAZ, Vital PG, Widmer KW, Rivera WL. Fecal contamination in irrigation water and microbial quality of vegetable primary production in urban farms of Metro Manila, Philippines. J Environ Sci Health B 2015;50:734-43.

Gupta N, Khan DK, Santra SC. Prevalence of intestinal helminth eggs on vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated areas of Titagarh, West Bengal, India. Food Control 2009;20:942-5.

Javanmard E, Mirjalali H, Niyyati M, Sharifdini M, Jalilzadeh E, Tabaei SJS, et al. Small-scale risk assessment of transmission of parasites from wastewater treatment plant to downstream vegetable farms. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018;11:352.

Javanmard E, Mirjalali H, Niyyati M, Jalilzadeh E, Tabaei SJS, Aghdaei HA, et al. Molecular and phylogenetic evidences of dispersion of human-infecting microsporidia to vegetable farms via irrigation with treated wastewater: one-year follow up. Int J Hyg Environ Health 2018;221:642-51.

Liu X, Yan Y, Li F, Zhang D. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of depression: a meta-analysis. Nutrition 2016;32:296-302.

Wu QJ, Wu L, Zheng LQ, Xu X, Ji C, Gong TT. Consumption of fruit and vegetables reduces risk of pancreatic cancer: evidence from epidemiological studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 2016;25:196-205.

Park S, Szonyi B, Gautam R, Nightingale K, Anciso J, Ivanek R. Risk factors for microbial contamination in fruits and vegetables at the preharvest level: a systematic review. J Food Protect 2012;75:2055-81.

Erickson Marilyn C. Microbial risks associated with cabbage, carrots, celery, onions, and deli salads made with these produce items. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety 2010;9:602-19.

Decraene V, Lebbad M, Botero-Kleiven S, Gustavsson AM, Lofdahl M. First reported foodborne outbreak associated with microsporidia, Sweden, October 2009. Epidemiol Infect 2012;140:519-27.

Aberg R, Sjoman M, Hemminki K, Pirnes A, Rasanen S, Kalanti A, et al. Cryptosporidium parvum caused a large outbreak linked to frisee salad in Finland, 2012. Zoon Public Health 2015;62:618-24.

Ponka A, Kotilainen H, Rimhanen-Finne R, Hokkanen P, Hanninen ML, Kaarna A, et al. A foodborne outbreak due to Cryptosporidium parvum in Helsinki, November 2008. Euro Surveill 2009;14.

McKerr C, Adak GK, Nichols G, Gorton R, Chalmers RM, Kafatos G, et al. An Outbreak of Cryptosporidium parvum across England & Scotland Associated with Consumption of Fresh Pre-Cut Salad Leaves, May 2012. PLoS One 2015;10:e0125955.

Bechtel U, Feucht HE, Held E, Vogl T, Nothdurft HD. Fasciola hepatic infection in a family: diagnosis and therapy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1992;117:978-82.

Alcoba Leza M, Costilla S, Cabreros Pisonero E, Jimenez Garcia de la Marina JM, Carro JA, Lopez Gonzalez R, et al. Distomatosis caused by Fasciola hepatica. Study of an epidemic outbreak. Rev Esp Enferm Apar Dig 1988;74:509-14.

Fallah AA, Makhtumi Y, Pirali-Kheirabadi K. Seasonal study of parasitic contamination in fresh salad vegetables marketed in Shahrekord, Iran. Food Control 2016;60:538-42.

Shahnazi M, Jafari-Sabet M. Prevalence of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in villages of Qazvin Province, Iran. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2010;7:1025-30.

Ezatpour B, Chegeni AS, Abdollahpour F, Aazami M, Alirezaei M. Prevalence of parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Khorramabad, Iran. Food Control 2013;34:92-5.

Rostami A, Ebrahimi M, Mehravar S, Fallah Omrani V, Fallahi S, Behniafar H. Contamination of commonly consumed raw vegetables with soil transmitted helminth eggs in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Int J Food Microbiol 2016;225:54-8.

Bezanson GS, Ells TC, Prange RK. Effect of composting on microbial contamination and quality of fresh fruits and vegetables - a mini-review. Acta Hortic 2014;1018:631-8.

Siyadatpanah A, Tabatabaei F, Zeydi AE, Spotin A, Fallah-Omrani V, Assadi M, et al. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables in Amol, North of Iran. Arch Clin Infect Dis 2013;8.

Ethelberg S, Lisby M, Vestergaard LS, Enemark HL, Olsen KE, Stensvold CR, et al. A foodborne outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis infection. Epidemiol Infect 2009;137:348-56.

Adanir R, Tasci F. Prevalence of helminth eggs in raw vegetables consumed in Burdur, Turkey. Food Control 2013;31:482-4.

Adenusi AA, Abimbola WA, Adewoga TOS. Human intestinal helminth contamination in pre-washed, fresh vegetables for sale in major markets in Ogun State, southwest Nigeria. Food Control 2015;50:843-9.

Mohamed MA, Siddig EE, Elaagip AH, Edris AMM, Nasr AA. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2016;15:17.

dos Santos Toledo R, Martins FDC, Freire RL. Waterborne Giardia and Cryptosporidium: contamination of human drinking water by sewage and cattle feces. Semin Cienc Agrar 2017;38:3395-415.

Bekele F, Tefera T, Biresaw G, Yohannes T. Parasitic contamination of raw vegetables and fruits collected from selected local markets in Arba Minch town, Southern Ethiopia. Infect Dis Poverty 2017;6:19.

Ahmed SA, Karanis P. An overview of methods/techniques for the detection of Cryptosporidium in food samples. Parasitol Res 2018;117:629-53.

Ajonina C, Buzie C, Ajonina IU, Basner A, Reinhardt H, Gulyas H, et al. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium in a wastewater treatment plant in North Germany. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2012;75:1351-8.

Alonso JL, Amoros I, Guy RA. Quantification of viable Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater using propidium monoazide quantitative real-time PCR. Parasitol Res 2014;113:2671-8.

Gennaccaro AL, McLaughlin MR, Quintero-Betancourt W, Huffman DE, Rose JB. Infectious Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in final reclaimed effluent. Appl Environ Microbiol 2003;69:4983-4.

Taghipour A, Azimi T, Javanmard E, Pormohammad A, Olfatifar M, Rostami A, et al. Immunocompromised patients with pulmonary tuberculosis; a susceptible group to intestinal parasites. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018;11:S134.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ghfbb.v12i4.1689