Aim: Survey of the survival levels of gastric cancer and its effective causes.
Background: The survival of gastric cancer because of the advances in this type of cancer cures has been increased during the last decades.
Methods: 643 patients evolved by gastric cancer referred to Imam Khomeini hospital of Sari (2007- 2013) were studied. According to this method, the numbers of 74 patients were neglected because of defective data, and the number of 569 patients went under study. The level of survival was determined by use of Kaplan Meier, so to determine the causes affecting on the patients' survival, the univariate analysis of Log-rank test was used.
Results: Regarding the follow up of these patients during 2013 Nov-Dec the one, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years of survival of these patients were estimated equal to 0.77, 0.65, 0.52, 0.44, 0.27 percent and the survival median equal to 19 months, so survival means equal to 24.49 months. Based on the ranked logarithm test and FDR method some variables like stage (p<0.001) Radiotherapy (p<0.005) and undergo Surgery before Adjuvant chemotherapy (p<0.001) were determined as the effective factors on the survival probability.
Conclusion: The life length of the patients under this article in comparison with developed countries is shallow that might be because of late reference or delayed diagnosis and the shortness of cure facilities. In this way, some materials like soon diagnosis and screen methods could be effective on the increase in patients' survival.
Keywords: Gastric cancer, Survival analysis, Kaplan Meier estimate.
(Please cite as Nikpour A, Khalilian A, Maleki I, Mohsenipouya H, Yazdani Charati J. Survival of gastric cancer patients based on pathologic and demographic characteristics in Mazandaran between 2007 and 2013. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2019;12(4):315-321).
Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J, Pisani P. Global cancer statistics, 2002. Cancer J Clin 2005;55:74-108.
Nazir S, Hussain T, Ayub A, Rashid U, MacRobert AJ. Nanomaterials in combating cancer: therapeutic applications and developments. Nanomedicine 2014;10:19-34.
Fock K. The epidemiology and prevention of gastric cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2014;40:250-60.
Biglarian A, Hajizadeh E, Kazemnejad A, Zali M. Survival analysis of gastric cancer patients using Cox model&58; a five year study. Tehran Univers Med J 2009;67:317-25.
Prabhu V, Uzzaman S, Grace VMB, Guruvayoorappan C. Nanoparticles in drug delivery and cancer therapy: the giant rats tail. J Cancer Ther 2011;2:325-34.
Jameson JL, Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, eds. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2018.
Hajizadeh E, Fatemi SR. Application of Bayes method in determining of the risk factors on the survival rate of gastric cancer patients. Koomesh 2010;11:129-32. [In Persian]
García-Esquinas E, Pérez-Gómez B, Pollán M, Boldo E, Fernández-Navarro P, Lope V, et al. Gastric cancer mortality trends in Spain, 1976-2005, differences by autonomous region and sex. BMC Cancer 2009;9:346.
Stracci F, Canosa A, Minelli L, Petrinelli AM, Cassetti T, Romagnoli C, et al. Cancer mortality trends in the Umbria region of Italy 1978–2004: a joinpoint regression analysis. BMC Cancer 2007;7:10.
Kim JI, Kim SG, Kim N, Kim JG, Shin SJ, Kim SW, et al. Changing prevalence of upper gastrointestinal disease in 28 893 Koreans from 1995 to 2005. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009;21:787-93.
Abdirad A, Ghaderi-Sohi S, Shuyama K, Koriyama C, Nadimi-Barforoosh H, Emami S, et al. Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric carcinoma: a report from Iran in the last four decades. Diagn Pathol 2007;2:25.
Pinheiro PS, Tyczyński J, Bray F, Amado J, Matos E, Parkin D. Cancer incidence and mortality in Portugal. Eur J Cancer 2003;39:2507-20.
Kitagawa M, Ichikawa D, Komatsu S, Okamoto K, Shiozaki A, Fujiwara H, et al. The directionality of lymphatic spreading as a prognostic factor in gastric cancer: uni-or multidirectional lymphatic metastases. Hepatol Gastroenterol 2011;58:2148-51.
Liu Y, Chen X-H, Meng X-H, Liu C-F, Zhao L-L, Han J-W, et al. Multivariate prognostic study on node-positive gastric cancer: is tumor size a prognostic indicator? Hepatol Gastroenterol 2012;59:623-6.
Jamali H, Khanjani N, Fararouei M, Parisae Z, Chorami M. Estimation of the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer and its risk factors based on pathological and demographic data during 2005 to 2011 in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad. Iranian J Epidemiol 2015;11:42-55.
Yazdanbod A, Samadi F, Babaei M, Malekzadeh R, Iranparvar AM, Azami A. Four-year survival rate of patients with upper GI cancer in Ardabil. Ardabil University of Medical Sciences 2005;5:180-4. [In Persian]
Moghimi Dehkordi B, Rajaeefard A, Tabatabaee H, Zeighami B, Safaee A, Tabeie Z. Modeling survival analysis in gastric cancer patients using the proportional hazards model of Cox. Iranian J Epidemiol 2007;3:19-24.
Syrios J, Sougioultzis S, Xynos ID, Kavantzas N, Kosmas C, Agrogiannis G, et al. Survival in patients with stage IV noncardia gastric cancer-the influence of DNA ploidy and Helicobacter pylori infection. BMC Cancer 2012;12:264
Zhang YF, Shi J, Yu HP, Feng AN, Fan XS, Lauwers GY, et al. Factors predicting survival in patients with proximal gastric carcinoma involving the esophagus. World J Gastroenterology 2012;18:3602.
Esmaeili H. Comparison of survival of patients with cancers of the esophagus and stomach, and the characteristics of the cancer in Mazandaran province [Master's thesis of Biostatistics]. Tehran: School of Medicine, Univrsiuty of Tarbiat Modarres; 1994.
Spych M, Serbiak B, Rychter A, Jesien-Lewandowicz E, Gottwald L, Fijuth J. Post-operative radiochemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer: one department’s experience of 56 patients. Br J Radiol 2011;84:457-63.
Yoney A, Bati Y, Isikli L, Unsal M. Postoperative chemoradiation in patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma: Single center experience. Indian J Cancer 2011;48:24.
Kazemnejad A, Roshanaei G, Sedighi S. Postoperative survival estimation of gastric cancer patients in cancer institute of Tehran, Imam Khomeini hospital and its relative factors. Scientific J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17:13-8. [In Persian]
Yazdani J, Sadeghi S, Janbabaei G, Haghighi F. Applying survival analysis to estimate survival time in gastric cancer patients. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2011;21:28-36. [In Persian]
Zeinalzadeh AH, Hosseini R, Abdullahi L. Survey of epidemiology of cancers in the patients above 15 years old in east Azerbaijan province, Iran 2013. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci 2015;15:46-55. [In Persian]
Hashemi S, Hagh-Azali M, Bagheri M, Kabir A. Histopathologic and Anatomic Correlation of Primary Gastric Cancers. Razi J Med Sci 2004;11:319-26. [In Persian]
Kelley JR, Duggan JM. Gastric cancer epidemiology and risk factors. J clin Epidemiol 2003;56:1-9.
Pesic M, Karanikolic A, Djordjevic N, Katic V, Rancic Z, Radojkovic M, et al. The importance of primary gastric cancer location in 5-year survival rate. Arch Oncol 2004;12:51-3.
Nourozinia F, Rasmi Y, Otarod M, Golizadeh M, Khadem-Ansari M-H. Epidemiology and histopathology of gastric cancer in Urmia. Urmia Med J 2013;24:170-5. [In Persian]
DavoodAbadi AH, Sharifi H, Erfan N, Dianati M, AbdolRahim Kashi E. An epidemiologic and clinical survey on gastric cancer patients refered to shahid beheshti hospital of kashan(1994-2001). Razi J Med Sci 2003;10:211-20. [In Persian]
Sadighi S, Raafat J, Mohagheghi M, Meemary F. Gastric carcinoma: 5 year experience of a single institute. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005;6:195-6.
DavoodAbadi A, Sharifi H, Erfan N, Dianati M, AbdolRahim Kashi E. An epidemiologic and clinical survey on gastric cancer patients refered to Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Kashan (1994-2001). Razi J Med Sci 2003;10:211-20. [In Persian]
Noorkojuri H, Hajizadeh E, Baghestani A, Pourhoseingholi M. Application of smoothing methods for determining of the effecting factors on the survival rate of gastric cancer patients. Iranian Red Crescent Med J 2013;15:166. [In Persian]
Ghorbani Gholiabad S, Yazdani Cherati J, Jan Babai G, Shabankhani B. Survival of patients with gastric cancer in Mazandaran Province, 2007-2012. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci 2013;23:43-50. [In Persian]
Pourhoseingholi MA, Moghimi-Dehkordi B, Safaee A, Hajizadeh E, Solhpour A, Zali MR. Prognostic factors in gastric cancer using log-normal censored regression model. Indian J Med Res 2009;129:262-7.
Zeraati H, Mahmoudi M, Kazemnejad A, Mohammad K. Postoperative survival in gastric cancer patients and its associated factors: A time dependent covariates model. Iranian J Public Health 2006;35:40-6.
Landry J, Tepper JE, Wood WC, Moulton EO, Koerner F, Sullinger J. Patterns of failure following curative resection of gastric carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physic 1990;19:1357-62.
Desai AM, Pareek M, Nightingale PG, Fielding JW. Improving outcomes in gastric cancer over 20 years. Gastric Cancer 2004;7:196-203.
Macdonald JS, Smalley SR, Benedetti J, Hundahl SA, Estes NC, Stemmermann GN, et al. Chemoradiotherapy after surgery compared with surgery alone for adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. New Engl J Med 2001;345:725-30.
Sun J, Sun Y-H, Zeng Z-C, Qin X-Y, Zeng M-S, Chen B, et al. Consideration of the role of radiotherapy for abdominal lymph node metastases in patients with recurrent gastric cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physic 2010;77:384-91.
Cunningham D, Allum WH, Stenning SP, Thompson JN, Van de Velde CJ, Nicolson M, et al. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. New Engl J Med 2006;355:11-20.