• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

Occurrence of Helicobacter pylori and its major virulence genotypes in dental plaque samples of patients with chronic periodontitis in Iran

Sahel Valadan Tahbaz, Abbas Yadegar, Nour Amirmozafari, Siamak Yaghoobee, Mohammad Javad Ehsani-Ardekani, Homayon Zojaji
173

Views

PDF

Abstract

Aim: This study was aimed to investigate the presence of H. pylori and its virulence genotypes in dental plaques of Iranian patients with chronic periodontitis.

Background: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that is associated with atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Several studies have detected this bacterium in the oral cavity, suggesting it as a potential reservoir.

Methods: A hundred individuals were divided in 2 groups: 50 patients with chronic periodontitis (case group), and 50 subjects in non-periodontitis (control group). Supragingival and subgingival plaque samples were collected from the individuals using wood wedges and sterile paper points respectively, and prepared for PCR analysis.

Results: Totally, H. pylori DNA was detected in 5 out of 100 (5%) dental plaques. Of 5 dental plaques positive for H. pylori, cagA gene was detected in 4 specimen, 3 in periodontitis group and one in non-periodontitis group. The H. pylori vacA s1m1 genotype was predominantly detected in 2/5 samples. The babA2 gene was detected in all (5/5) H. pylori-positive dental plaques. There was no significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori genotypes from dental plaques and chronic periodontitis (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our results revealed that the rate of H. pylori is very low in the dental plaques of Iranian patients with chronic periodontitis. Majority of H. pylori strains from oral cavity were highly virulent based on the main clinically virulence factors they carried.


Keywords

Helicobacter pylori; Chronic periodontitis; Virulence genotypes; Dental plaque; PCR

References

Warren JR, Marshall B. Unidentified curved bacilli on gastric epithelium in active chronic gastritis. The lancet 1983;321:1273-5.

Kusters JG, van Vliet AH, Kuipers EJ. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2006;19:449-90.

Polk DB, Peek RM, Jr. Helicobacter pylori: gastric cancer and beyond. Nat Rev Cancer 2010;10:403-14.

Li C, Musich PR, Ha T, Ferguson DA, Jr., Patel NR, Chi DS, et al. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in saliva demonstrated by a novel PCR assay. J Clin Pathol 1995;48:662-6.

Namiot Z, Namiot DB, Kemona A, Stasiewicz J. Effect of antibacterial therapy and salivary secretion on the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2004;97:714-7.

Medina ML, Medina MG, Martin GT, Picon SO, Bancalari A, Merino LA. Molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in oral samples from patients suffering digestive pathologies. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15:e38-42.

Song Q, Haller B, Ulrich D, Wichelhaus A, Adler G, Bode G. Quantitation of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque samples by competitive polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Pathol 2000;53:218-22.

Berroteran A, Perrone M, Correnti M, Cavazza ME, Tombazzi C, Goncalvez R, et al. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the oral cavity and gastroduodenal system of a Venezuelan population. J Med Microbiol 2002;51:764-70.

Salmanian AH, Siavoshi F, Akbari F, Afshari A, Malekzadeh R. Yeast of the oral cavity is the reservoir of Heliobacter pylori. J Oral Pathol Med 2008;37:324-8.

Savoldi E, Marinone MG, Negrini R, Facchinetti D, Lanzini A, Sapelli PL. Absence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque determined by immunoperoxidase. Helicobacter 1998;3:283-7.

Checchi L, Felice P, Acciardi C, Ricci C, Gatta L, Polacci R, et al. Absence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque assessed by stool test. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:3005-6.

Atherton JC, Blaser MJ. Coadaptation of Helicobacter pylori and humans: ancient history, modern implications. J Clin Invest 2009;119:2475-87.

Kraft C, Suerbaum S. Mutation and recombination in Helicobacter pylori: mechanisms and role in generating strain diversity. Int J Med Microbiol 2005;295:299-305.

Backert S, Tegtmeyer N, Selbach M. The versatility of Helicobacter pylori CagA effector protein functions: The master key hypothesis. Helicobacter 2010;15:163-76.

Tegtmeyer N, Wessler S, Backert S. Role of the cag-pathogenicity island encoded type IV secretion system in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. FEBS J 2011;278:1190-202.

Blaser MJ, Perez-Perez GI, Kleanthous H, Cover TL, Peek RM, Chyou P, et al. Infection with Helicobacter pylori strains possessing cagA is associated with an increased risk of developing adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Cancer Res. 1995;55:2111-5.

van Doorn LJ, Figueiredo C, Sanna R, Plaisier A, Schneeberger P, de Boer W, et al. Clinical relevance of the cagA, vacA, and iceA status of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 1998;115:58-66.

Van Doorn LJ, Figueiredo C, Megraud F, Pena S, Midolo P, Queiroz DM, et al. Geographic distribution of vacA allelic types of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 1999;116:823-30.

Figueiredo C, Machado JC, Pharoah P, Seruca R, Sousa S, Carvalho R, et al. Helicobacter pylori and interleukin 1 genotyping: an opportunity to identify high-risk individuals for gastric carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1680-7.

Atherton JC, Cao P, Peek RM, Jr., Tummuru MK, Blaser MJ, Cover TL. Mosaicism in vacuolating cytotoxin alleles of Helicobacter pylori. Association of specific vacA types with cytotoxin production and peptic ulceration. J Biol Chem 1995;270:17771-7.

Backert S, Tegtmeyer N. The versatility of the Helicobacter pylori vacuolating cytotoxin VacA in signal transduction and molecular crosstalk. Toxins 2010;2:69-92.

Gerhard M, Lehn N, Neumayer N, Boren T, Rad R, Schepp W, et al. Clinical relevance of the Helicobacter pylori gene for blood-group antigen-binding adhesin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999;96:12778-83.

Yamaoka Y, Ojo O, Fujimoto S, Odenbreit S, Haas R, Gutierrez O, et al. Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins and gastroduodenal disease. Gut. 2006;55:775-81.

Socransky SS, Haffajee AD. Dental biofilms: difficult therapeutic targets. Periodontol 2000 2002;28:12-55.

Kolenbrander PE, Andersen RN, Blehert DS, Egland PG, Foster JS, Palmer RJ, Jr. Communication among oral bacteria. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2002;66:486-505.

Marquis RE. Oxygen metabolism, oxidative stress and acid-base physiology of dental plaque biofilms. J Ind Microbiol. 1995;15:198-207.

Okuda K, Kimizuka R, Katakura A, Nakagawa T, Ishihara K. Ecological and immunopathological implications of oral bacteria in Helicobacter pylori-infected disease. J Periodontol 2003;74:123-8.

Anand PS, Nandakumar K, Shenoy KT. Are dental plaque, poor oral hygiene, and periodontal disease associated with Helicobacter pylori infection? J Periodontol 2006;77:692-8.

Gebara EC, Faria CM, Pannuti C, Chehter L, Mayer MP, Lima LA. Persistence of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity after systemic eradication therapy. J Clin Periodontol 2006;33:329-33.

Souto R, Colombo AP. Detection of Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction in the subgingival biofilm and saliva of non-dyspeptic periodontal patients. J Periodontol 2008;79:97-103.

Yadegar A, Alebouyeh M, Zali MR. Analysis of the intactness of Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island in Iranian strains by a new PCR-based strategy and its relationship with virulence genotypes and EPIYA motifs. Infect Genet Evol 2015;35:19-26.

Yadegar A, Mobarez AM, Alebouyeh M, Mirzaei T, Kwok T, Zali MR. Clinical relevance of cagL gene and virulence genotypes with disease outcomes in a Helicobacter pylori infected population from Iran. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;30:2481-90.

Dabiri H, Jafari F, Baghaei K, Shokrzadeh L, Abdi S, Pourhoseingholi MA, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, cagE, oipA, iceA, babA2 and babB genotypes in Iranian dyspeptic patients. Microb Pathog 2017:105:226-30.

Yadegar A, Alebouyeh M, Lawson AJ, Mirzaei T, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E, Zali MR. Differentiation of non-pylori Helicobacter species based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 23S rRNA gene. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 2014;30:1909-17.

Shames B, Krajden S, Fuksa M, Babida C, Penner JL. Evidence for the occurrence of the same strain of Campylobacter pylori in the stomach and dental plaque. J Clin Microbiol 1989;27:2849-50.

Shimoyama T, Horie N, Kato T, Kaneko T, Komiyama K. Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations. J Oral Sci 2000;42:225-9.

Kilmartin CM. Dental implications of Helicobacter pylori. J Can Dent Assoc 2002;68:489-93.

Silva DG, Stevens RH, Macedo JM, Albano RM, Falabella ME, Veerman EC, et al. Detection of cytotoxin genotypes of Helicobacter pylori in stomach, saliva and dental plaque. Arch Oral Biol 2009;54:684-8.

Silva DG, Stevens RH, Macedo JM, Albano RM, Falabella ME, Fischer RG, et al. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in supragingival dental plaque of individuals with periodontal disease and upper gastric diseases. Arch Oral Biol 2010;55:896-901.

Anand PS, Kamath KP, Anil S. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2014;20:5639-53.

Eskandari A, Mahmoudpour A, Abolfazli N, Lafzi A. Detection of Helicobacter pylori using PCR in dental plaque of patients with and without gastritis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010;15:e28-31.

Momtaz H, Souod N, Dabiri H, Sarshar M. Study of Helicobacter pylori genotype status in saliva, dental plaques, stool and gastric biopsy samples. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18:2105-11.

Goosen C, Theron J, Ntsala M, Maree FF, Olckers A, Botha SJ, et al. Evaluation of a novel heminested PCR assay based on the phosphoglucosamine mutase gene for detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva and dental plaque. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:205-9.

Kignel S, de Almeida Pina F, Andre EA, Alves Mayer MP, Birman EG. Occurrence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and saliva of dyspeptic patients. Oral Dis 2005;11:17-21.

Burgers R, Schneider-Brachert W, Reischl U, Behr A, Hiller KA, Lehn N, et al. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach. Eur J Oral Sci 2008;116:297-304.

Miyabayashi H, Furihata K, Shimizu T, Ueno I, Akamatsu T. Influence of oral Helicobacter pylori on the success of eradication therapy against gastric Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter 2000;5:30-7.

Agarwal S, Jithendra KD. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients with and without dyspepsia, detected by polymerase chain reaction and culture. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2012;16:398-403.

Suk FM, Chen SH, Ho YS, Pan S, Lou HY, Chang CC, et al. It is difficult to eradicate Helicobacter pylori from dental plaque by triple therapy. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 2002;65:468-73.

Chaudhry S, Idrees M, Izhar M, Butt AK, Khan AA. Simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes: more reliable method of Helicobacter pylori detection in microbial rich dental plaque samples. Curr Microbiol 2011;62:78-83.

Gao J, Li Y, Wang Q, Qi C, Zhu S. Correlation between distribution of Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and chronic stomach conditions. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci 2011;31:409-12.

Azuma T, Yamazaki S, Yamakawa A, Ohtani M, Muramatsu A, Suto H, et al. Association between diversity in the Src homology 2 domain--containing tyrosine phosphatase binding site of Helicobacter pylori CagA protein and gastric atrophy and cancer. J Infect Dis. 2004;189:820-7.

Suzuki M, Mimuro H, Kiga K, Fukumatsu M, Ishijima N, Morikawa H, et al. Helicobacter pylori CagA phosphorylation-independent function in epithelial proliferation and inflammation. Cell Host Microbe 2009;5:23-34.

Suzuki N, Murata-Kamiya N, Yanagiya K, Suda W, Hattori M, Kanda H, et al. Mutual reinforcement of inflammation and carcinogenesis by the Helicobacter pylori CagA oncoprotein. Sci Rep 2015;5:10024.

Vaziri F, Najar Peerayeh S, Alebouyeh M, Molaei M, Maghsoudi N, Zali MR. Determination of Helicobacter pylori CagA EPIYA types in Iranian isolates with different gastroduodenal disorders. Infect Genet Evol 2013;17:101-5.

Assumpcao MB, Martins LC, Melo Barbosa HP, Barile KA, de Almeida SS, Assumpcao PP, et al. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque and stomach of patients from Northern Brazil. World J Gastroenterol 2010;16:3033-9.

Momtaz H, Souod N, Dabiri H. Comparison of the virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori isolated in stomach and saliva in Iran. Am J Med Sci 2010;340:345-9.

Sugimoto M, Zali MR, Yamaoka Y. The association of vacA genotypes and Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases in the Middle East. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2009;28:1227-36.

Atherton JC, Peek RM, Jr., Tham KT, Cover TL, Blaser MJ. Clinical and pathological importance of heterogeneity in vacA, the vacuolating cytotoxin gene of Helicobacter pylori. Gastroenterology 1997;112:92-9.

Yamaoka Y, Kodama T, Gutierrez O, Kim JG, Kashima K, Graham DY. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori iceA, cagA, and vacA status and clinical outcome: studies in four different countries. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:2274-9.

Miehlke S, Kirsch C, Agha-Amiri K, Gunther T, Lehn N, Malfertheiner P, et al. The Helicobacter pylori vacA s1, m1 genotype and cagA is associated with gastric carcinoma in Germany. Int J Cancer 2000;87:322-7.

Nogueira C, Figueiredo C, Carneiro F, Gomes AT, Barreira R, Figueira P, et al. Helicobacter pylori genotypes may determine gastric histopathology. Am J Pathol 2001;158:647-54.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ghfbb.v0i0.1267