• Logo
  • SBMUJournals

The influences of dried Chicory root and White lupine added to food on jejunal morphology: experimental study

Peter Makovicky, Zdenek Volek, Linda Uhlirova, Pavol Makovicky




Aim: The objective of this work was to test the effects of adding dried Chicory root and White lupine food on small bowel morphology and compare it to a standard commercial diet.

Background: Various commercial gluten-free products, gluten-free raw materials and gluten-free plants are this time available on the food market, but there are still not enough information about their effect on the small bowel morphology.

Methods: Altogether thirty rabbits were used in this study. The control diet (C) contained common feed components. The first experimental diet (E1) contained (per kg) 60 g of dried chicory roots instead of barley, whereas the second experimental diet (E2) was based on white lupine seeds (cv. Amiga; 120 g per kg diet) instead of the soybean meal used in the control diet. The experiment started when the rabbits were 34-days old and lasted until they were 55-days old. At the end, one jejunal small bowel tissue was sampled, and both the heights and depths of the villi and crypts were measured.

Results: The highest villi were measured in the E1 (598.99 µm) group, mean in the C (590.30 µm) group and the lowest were in the E2 (563.74 µm) group. The most intense mucin villous positivity was observed in the E2 group, followed by the E1 group, and the weakest positivity was found in the visible C group.

Conclusion: Chicory root has practical uses in gluten-free industries.

Keywords: Celiac disease, Gluten-free diet, Nutrition, Small bowel, Villi intestinalis.

(Please cite as: Makovicky P, Volek Z, Uhlirova L, Makovicky P. The influences of dried Chicory root and White lupine added to food on jejunal morphology: experimental study. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2018;11(3):233-238).


celiac disease, gluten-free diet, nutrition, small bowel, villi intestinalis


Parzanese I, Quhajaja D, Patrinicola F, Aralica M, Chiriva-Internati M, Stifter S, et al. Celiac disease: From pathophysiology to treatment. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2017;8(2):27-38.

Zamanian Azodi M, Peyvandi H, Rostami-Nejad M, Safaei A, Rostami K, Vafaee R et al. Protein-protein interaction network of celiac disease. Gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2016;9(4):268-277.

Mlynekova Z, Chrenkova M, Formelova Z. Cereals and legumes in nutrition of people with celiac disease. Int J Celiac Dis 2014;2(3):105-109.

Oza SS, Akbari M, Kelly CP, Hansen J, Theethira T, Tariq S, et al. Socioeconomic risk factors for celiac disease burden and symptoms. J Clin Gastroenterol 2016;50(4):307-312.

Ciska E, Drabinska N, Narwojsz A, Honke J. Stability of glucosinolates and glucosinolate degradation products during storage of boiled white cabbage. Food Chem 2016;203(15):340-347.

OShea NA, Arendt, E, Gallagher E. State of the art in gluten-free research. J Food Sci 2014;79(6):R1067-R1076.

Scarnato L, Serrazanetti DI, Aloisi I, Montanari C, Del Duca S, Lanciotti R. Combination of transglutaminase and sourdough on gluten-free flours to improve dough structure. Amino Acids 2016;48(10):2453-2465.

Barcaccia C, Ghedina A, Lucchin M. Current advances in genomics and breeding of leaf Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). Agriculture 2016;50(6):2-24.

Saed M, El-Hack MEA, Alagawany M, Arain MA, Arif M, Mirza MA. et al. Chicory (Cichorium intybus) Herb: Chemical Composition, Pharmacology, Nutritional and Healthical Applications. Int J Pharmacol 2017;13(4):351-360.

Street RA, Sidana J, Prinsloo G. Cichorium intybus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013:579319.

Fernandez-Carmona J, Blas E, Pascual JJ, Maertens L, Gidenne T, Xiccato G. et al. Recommendations and guidelines for applied nutrition experiments in rabbits. World Rabbit Sci 2005;13(4):209-228.

De Blas C, Mateos GG. Feed formulation. In: The Nutrition of the Rabbit. 2nd ed., De Blas C, Wiseman J. (ed.). CABI International, Wallingford, UK 2010;222-232.

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA, Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 1991;74(10):3583-3597.

AOAC International. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Ed. Assoc Off Anal Chem Maryland USA 2005.

AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th Ed. Assoc Off Anal Chem Arlington VA, USA. 2005.

SAS Institute Inc., The SAS System for Windows. Release 9.1.3., SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC 2003.

Freeman HJ. (2017): Dietary compliance in celiac disease. World J Gastroenterol 2017;21(15):2635-2639.

Aziz I, Dwivedi K, Sanders DS. From coeliac disease to noncoeliac gluten sensitivity; should everyone be gluten free? Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2016;32(2):120-127.

Samasca G, Sur G, Lupan I, Deleanu D. Gluten-free diet and quality of life in celiac disease. gastroenterol Hepatol Bed Bench 2014;7(3):139-143.

Samasca G, Lerner A, Girbovan A, Sur G, Lupan I, Makovicky P. et al. (2017): Challenges in gluten-free diet in coeliac disease: Prague consensus. Eur J Clin Invest 2017;47(5):394-397.

Lamacchia C, Camarcia A, Picascia S, Di Luccia A, Gianfranni, C. Cereal-based gluten-free food: how to reconcile nutritional and technological properties of wheat proteins with safety for celiac disease patients. Nutrients. 2014;6(2):575-590.

Merz M, Kettner L, Langolf E, Appel D, Blank I, Stressler T. et al. Production of wheat gluten hydrolysates with reduced antigenicity employing enzymatic hydrolysis combined with downstream unit operations. J Sci Food Agric 2016;96(10):3358-3364.

Drabinska N, Zielinski H, Krupa-Kozak U. Technological benefits of inulin-type fructans application in gluten-free products – A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology. 2016;56(10):149–157.

Drabinska N, Bacyek N, Krupa-Koyak U. Knowledge about coeliac disease: Results of survey conducted among persons screened using a self-administered transglutaminase-based test. Acta Aliment 2016;46(3):283-289.

Vymetalkova V, Pardini B, Rosa F, Jiraskova K, Di Gaetano C, Bendova P. et al. Polymorphisms in microRNA binding sites of mucin genes as predictors of clinical outcome in colorectal cancer patients. Carcinogenesis 2017;38(1)28-39.

Santini D, Baldi A, Vincenzi B, Mellone P, Campioni M, Antinori A. et al. Mucin 2 (MUC2) and mucin 5 (MUC5) expression is not associated with prognosis in patients with radically resected ampullary carcinoma. J Clin Pathol 2007;60(9):1069-1070.

Castellini C, Cardinali R, Rebollar PG, Dal Bosco A, Jimeno V, Cossu ME. Feeding fresh chicory (Chicoria intybus) to young rabbits: Performance, development of gastro-intestinal tract and immune functions of appendix and Peyer's patch. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2007;134(1-2):56-65.

Lee GJ, Kao JY. Recent advances in pediatric celiac disease. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017;11(6):583-592.

Schumann M, Siegmund B, Schulyke JD, Fromm M. Celiac disease: Role of the epithelial barrier. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017;3(2):150-162.

Al-Snafi AE. Medical importance of Cichorium intybus-a review. IOSR J. Pharm 2016;6(3): 41–56.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.22037/ghfbb.v0i0.1248